Bulls & bears views and Markets

"No one ever achieved financial success with a January resolution that ends in February" – Suze Orman

Who are Bulls and Bears?

Bull: An investor who is optimistic about a particular investment and expects its price to rise and invests money into it in order to sell it later at a higher valuation is a bull. Bear: An investor who is pessimistic regarding a particular investment and expects the price to fall and hence, shorts the script or does not buy it is a bear.

Bullish & Bearish Market

Bullish Market: A bull market is a market where buyers outnumber the amount of sellers. The prices of the indices as well as all the scripts tend to rise and the views of all the participants is optimistic about the future. A bull market can be encouraged by strong and positive economic factors that thrive the stock market sentiments and raise future expectations. Bearish Market: Exactly opposite of the bullish market, the seller outnumber the buyers and the prices of indices and scripts tend to fall. The general view and approach towards the market is pessimistic. A bearish market can be initiated by factors like unstable economic environment, massive changes in the country that seem to be grasped by investors and unfavorable for the nations future.

Primary & Secondary market Learning the two markets

While primary market offers avenues for selling new securities to the investors, the secondary market is the market dealing in securities that are already issued by the company. The two financial markets play a major role in the mobilization of money in the country’s economy. Primary Market encourages direct interaction between the company and the investor while the secondary market is opposite where brokers help out the investors to buy and sell the stocks among other investors. In the primary market bulk purchasing of securities is not done while secondary market promotes bulk buying.

Key Differences Between Primary Market and Secondary Market

The points given below are noteworthy, as far as the difference between primary market and secondary market is concerned:

  • The securities are formerly issued in a market known as Primary Market, which is then listed on a recognized stock exchange for trading, which is known as a secondary market.
  • The prices in the primary market are fixed while the prices vary in the secondary market depending upon the demand and supply of the securities traded.
  • Primary market provides financing to new companies and also to old companies for their expansion and diversification. On the contrary, secondary market does not provide financing to companies, as they are not involved in the transaction.
  • At the primary market, the investor can purchase shares directly from the company. Unlike Secondary Market, when investors buy and sell the stocks and bonds among themselves.
  • Investment bankers do the selling of securities in case of Primary Market. Conversely, brokers act as intermediaries while trading is done in the secondary market.
  • In the primary market, security can be sold only once, whereas it can be done an infinite number of times in case of a secondary market.
  • The amount received from the securities are income of the company, but same is the income of investors when it is the case of a secondary market.
  • The primary market is rooted in a particular place and has no geographical presence, as it has no organizational setup. Conversely, Secondary market is present physically, as stock exchnage, which is situated in a particular geographical area.

SEBI Guidelines

Control of Capital Issues

  • Before SEBI came into existence issue of capital by companies was regulated by Controller of Capital Issue under Capital issue (Control ) Act in 1947.
  • The act was repealed on 29th May, 1992.With the abolition of CCI companies are not required to take permission of govt. for issue of capital they just have to get clearance from SEBI.
  • Govt. of India set up Securities and Exchange Board of India on 12th April, 1988. it was given statutory powers by an Act of parliament known Securities and Exchange Board of India Act,Act, 1992.

Organization of SEBI: SEBI has Got of Departments

  • Primary Market department
  • Issue Management Intermediaries department
  • Issue Management Intermediaries department
  • Institutional Investment department
  • Advisory Investment department


Section 11 of SEBI Act, 1992 gives the functions to be performed by the board.

These are:-

  • Regulatory Functions
  • Development Functions
  • Powers given by Securities Contract Regulation Act, 1956

Objective of SEBI Act, 1992

  • Provide investors protection and safeguard their rights and interest.
  • Promote fair dealings by the issue of securities and ensure a market place where funds can be raised at a relatively low costs.
  • Promote efficient services by the intermediaries in the capital market such as brokers and merchant bankers

SEBI Guidelines

  • IPO & Primary Market
  • Company
  • Merchant bankers
  • Underwriters
  • Stock Broker & Sub-broker to the issue
  • Banker to the issue
  • Registrar to the issue & Share transfer agent
  • Investors protection & Education
  • Venture Capital
  • Foreign Institutional Investors (FII)

Initial Public Offering & Primary Market-SEBI (Disclosure & Investors Protection) Rules And Regulation,24TH Feb.,2009.

  • Minimum offering of 25% of post issue capital to the public. This requirement wasrelaxed to 10% first for IT sector, later it was relaxed to all the sectors.
  • IPO of issue size up to 5 times of pre-issue , shall be allowed only to those companies having consistent track record of making profit at least for 5 years.
  • For issue above Rs. 100 crores book building route has been made compulsory for comp. making IPO.
  • For issue above Rs. 100 crores book building route has been made compulsory for comp. making IPO.
  • Time for finalizing the allotment of shares and refund has been reduced from 30to 15 days.
  • Issue shall open within 12 months from the date of issue of observation letter by SEBI.
  • Should disclose price band at least 2 working days before opening of bid by announcement in all newspapers in which pre-issue advt. was released.

SEBI Guidelines Regarding Companies Act

  • Free pricing of issues. A new issue can be priced freely provided it is backed by promoters with good track record of at least 5 years.
  • Underwriting made mandatory. The new guidelines issued by SEBI have directed full underwriting of public issue.
  • Issue of shares at par. A new company with no previous track record will be permitted to issue capital only at par.
  • Promoters contribution is fixed at 25% of total issue of less than Rs. 100 crores size and 20% of the issues above Rs. 100 crores
  • For public issue of existing listed companies, the issuer will have to disclose the high and low prices of the shares for the last 2 years.
  • No bonus issue shall be made within 12 months of any public issue or right issue.

SEBI (Merchant Banking) Rules And Regulation,2006

MBs are intermediaries who perform the activity of pre-issue and post-issue management activity and also act as co-mangers, underwriters, portfolio managers and advisors. Guidelines framed by govt.:---

Categories of MBs

  • CAT I- MBs who conduct all above activities. They also act as co-managers,underwriters or portfolio managers.
  • CAT II- MBs who can act as advisors, consultants, co-managers and portfolio managers.
  • CAT-III- MBs act as underwriters, advisors and consultants.
  • CAT-IV- MBs act as advisors or consultants to an issue.

Certificate of registration:--

  • Minimum adequacy norms in terms of its net worth is satisfied by each category of MBs.
  • They have necessary infrastructure, office , space, equipment and manpower.
  • They employ at least 2 persons competent to handle merchant banking business.
  • They are not involved in any litigation connected with security market.
  • They pay the prescribed fees.

Capital Adequacy Norms:---

  • CAT-I MBs – Rs 5 corers
  • CAT-II MBs- Rs 50,00,000
  • CAT-III MBs-Rs 20,00,000
  • CAT-IV MBs- NIL.

No. of MBs depending on the size of issue

Size of issue Max. no. of MBs
Below Rs 50 crores 2
Rs 50 to 100 crores 3
Rs 100- 200 4
Rs 200-400 5
Rs 400 and above More than 5

Renewal of registration: At the time of renewals of registration shall continue to fulfill all the conditions required at the time of registration , pay prescribed renewal fees.

Maintenance of the books of A/cs:The copy of B/S at each accounting period. The statement containing the name of the issue co, size of the issue, timing of the issue and activities performed by merchant bankers on behalf of issue company. P/L account and auditors report.

SEBI ( Underwriters) Rules and Regulation Act,1993

Underwriters are intermediaries who undertake to subscribe the unsubscribed portion of issued capital.

Condition for grant or renewal of certificate

  • In case of any change in the constitution, underwriter shall obtain prior permission of the Board to continue to act as underwriter.
  • The underwriter should enter into valid agreement with body corporate on whose behalf he is acting as underwriter.
  • He shall pay the amount of fees of registration in the manner
  • An underwriter may, if so desired makes an application in FORM A for renewal of certificate before 3months of the expiry of period of certificate.
  • Which is Rs 2 lakh for 1st ,2nd year and Rs 20,000 for 3rd year. Registration is granted for 3 years.
  • Has the necessary infrastructure like adequate office space, equipment manpower to effectively discharge his activities.
  • Has any past experience in underwriting or has in his employment minimum 2 persons who had the experience in underwriting.

Not to Act as underwriter without certificate:--

  • No person shall act underwriter unless he holds a certificate granted by the Board under the regulation.
  • Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rule(1), every stock- broker or merchant banker holding a valid certificate of registration under Section 12 of the Act, shall be entitled to act as an underwriter without obtaining a separate certificate for underwriting activities which shall be governed by the rules and regulations.

Capital Adequacy Norms:-

  • The capital adequacy requirement referred to insub-regulation 6 shall not be less than the net worth of Rs 20 lakhs.

SEBI ( Stock Broker and Sub-brokers) Rules,1992

  • Sub-broker means any person not being a member of stock exchange who acts on behalf of a stock broker as an agent or otherwise for assisting the investors in buying,selling or dealing in securities through stock broker.
  • No stock broker or sub broker shall buy, sell or deal in securities unless he holds a certificate granted by board under the regulation, provided that such person may continue to buy, sell or deal in securities if he has made an application for such registration.

Condition For Grant of Certificate of Registration:-

  • He holds the membership of any stock exchange
  • He shall abide by rules, regulation and bye-laws of stock exchange of which he is a member.
  • He shall pay the fees for registration in the manner provided in the regulations
  • He shall take adequate steps for redressal of grievances of the investors within one month of the date of receipt of complaints.

Condition For The Grant of Certificate to Sub-Broker:-

  • He shall pay the fees in the manner provided in the regulations Every stock broker shall subject to pay registration fees in the manner set out below :
    • Where the annual turnover does not exceed rupees Rs. 1 crore during any financial year, a sum of Rs. 5,000 for each financial year;
    • where the annual turnover of the stock-broker exceeds Rs 1 crore duringany financial year, a sum of Rs. 5,000 plus 1 % of the turnover in excess of Rs. 1 crore for each financial year
  • He shall take adequate steps in redressal of grievances of the investors within one month of the date of complaints.
  • In case of any change in constitution , the sub-broker shall obtain prior permission of the board to continue to buy , sell or deal in securities in any stock exchange.
  • He is authorized in writing by a stock- broker being a member of stock exchange for affiliating himself in buying, selling or dealing in securities.

SEBI (Banker to the Issue) Rules And Regulation Act,1992

  • Banker to the issue helps in functioning in primary market by engaging in activities of acceptance of application for shares/debentures along with application money from investors.
  • A bank can operate as banker to the issue only after obtaining a certificate of registration from SEBI. It considers past experience, nature, size of bank.

Certificate of registration is granted if it satisfies

  • The applicant has necessary infrastructure, office space, equipemnet, data processing and manpower.
  • Applicant is scheduled bank.
  • Application fees is paid i.e. Rs 2.5 lakh for 1-2 years from date of initial registration and Rs. 1 lakh for 3rd year.
  • Renewal is made 3 months before expiry by paying renewal fees of Rs 1 lakh annually for 1-2 years and Rs 20,000 for 3rd year.
  • Banker to the issue should record in the statement the agreement with issuing company, Submission of daily statements, furnishing the information to SEBI i.e. details of issue, No. of applicants and details of application money, refund to the investors. Inspection by RBI.

SEBI (Registrar To The Issue and Share Transfer Agent) Rules And Regulation Act,1993

  • Registrar to the issue perform the function to collect application from investors and keep a proper record of application and money received from investor, assist co. in determining the basis of allotment of securities.
  • Share transfer agent maintain record of holder of securities of company for & on behalf of company & handle all matters related to transfer and redemption of securities of the company.
  • Category of Registrar and Share transfer agent
    • CAT-I -those who carry on activities of both Registrar and STA
    • CAT-II- Those who carry on activities of either Registrar and STA
  • Both require registration with SEBI for carrying on with their operations. They can also seek renewal of registration.
  • Capital adequacy is net worth of Rs 6 lakh for CAT-I and Rs 3 lakh for CAT-II
  • Annual fees of Rs 15,000 & Rs 10,000 respectively for initial registration.
  • Maintenance of book of Account- record relating to all applications received from investors relating to the issue, record all rejected application together with reasons, basis of allotment of shares in consultation with stock exchange, date of transfer of shares, name of transferor and transferee.

SEBI (Investors Protection & Education Fund) Regulations,2009

  • “Fund” means Investors Protection and Education Fund created by the Board under section 11 of the Act.
  • “Legal Proceedings” means any proceedings before a court where one thousand or more are effected by misstatement in connection with the issue sale , purchase of securities.
  • Non payement of dividend
  • Non receipt of shares allotted or refund of application money.

Utilization of fund:-

  • The fund shall be utilized for the purpose of protection of investors and promotion of investors education and awareness with these regulations.
  • Education activities including seminar, training, research and publications aimed at investors.
  • The fund is utilized to provide aid which shall not exceed 70% of the total expenditure on legal proceedings.
  • Such an aid shall not be considered for more than one legal proceedings in a particular matter.
  • If more than one investor applies for seeking legal aid , the application is received first is considered first for such an aid

Classification of complaints:-

  • Type I- Non-receipt of refunds orders/allotment letters/ stock invest.
  • Type II- Non-receipt of dividend
  • Type III- Non-receipt of share certificate/ bonus shares
  • Type IV- Non receipt of debenture certificate/interest on debentures/redemption amount of debentures/ interest on delayed payments of interest.
  • Type V- Non-receipt of annual reports, right issue forms/ interest on delayed receipt of refund orders/ dividends.

SEBI (Venture Capital Fund Amended Regulation,2010)

  • Venture capital Fund means fund established in form of trust under Indian trust Act,1882 or a company including body corporate and registered under these regulations which:--
  • Dedicated pool of capital
  • Raised in a manner specified in the regulation.
  • Or venture capital undertaking domestic company whose shares are not listed on recognized stock exchange in India, which is engaged in the activity of providing services, production or manufacturing of articles or thing.

Registration of VC Funds:--

  • Application of grant of certificate
  • Any company or trust proposing to carry on any activity as a venture capital fund on or after the commencement of these shall make an application to the Board for grant of certificate.

Eligibility Criteria:---

  • For the purpose of grant of Certificate by Board the application should fulfill these criteria
  • Memorandum of association and Article of Association prohibits to form making an invitation to public to subscribe its securities.
  • Its director, employee is not involved in any litigation connected with security market.

Minimum Investment in Venture Capital Fund:--

  • A venture capital fund may raise monies from any investor whether Indian or foreign or NRI.
  • No VCF set up as a company shall accept any investment from any investor which is less than Rs 5lakhs.


All foreign institutional investors including pension funds, mutual funds, asset mangement companies and portfolio managers were permitted to invest in Indian capital market fulfilling the following conditions:-

  • The FIIs are required to obtain certificate of registration from the SEBI. For grant of certificate SEBI checks the applicant's track record, professional competence, financial soundness, experience, general reputation of fairness and integrity
  • They have to obtain approval from RBI under Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA), 1973.
  • Certificate of registration is granted for period of 3 years and after it can be renewed.
  • FIIs are permitted to invest in securities in the primary and secondary markets including shares, debentures listed or to be listed on a recognized stock exchange in India; and Units of schemes floated by domestic mutual funds including Unit Trust of India, whether listed on a recognized stock exchange or not.
  • A registered foreign institutional investor shall pay a fee of US $ 10,000 for every block of three years after grant of registration during which the registration subsist.
  • The fee mentioned in shall be paid at least one month before expiry of the period of three years.

Speculation v/s Investment

In financial jargon, the terms investment and speculation are overlapping and used synonymously. In investment, the time horizon is relatively longer, generally spanning at least one year while in speculation, the term may extend up to a half year only.

As per Benjamin Graham, an American economist, and professional investor, investment is an activity, which upon complete analysis assures the safety of the amount invested and adequate return. Conversely, speculation is an activity which does not satisfy these requirements.

Investment is a sound method to devote your money into thoroughly analyzed schemes, whereas speculation is a more lazy and risky approach. When you invest in a company you know everything about it but when you put money into a company on basis of your gut or a tip you are speculating, which in most cases causes individuals to lose their principle amount.

Steps Before Buying A Share


In your investment career, you must have received stock tips and recommendations from your brokers, friends and family. Many a times, on asking the rationale behind the same, the person giving the recommendation would state the source of the tip as one that is ‘reliable’.Investors need to make decisions based on certain factual information. Subsequently, they make future assumptions based on those facts. As such, knowing how an industry and a company functions is very important. In addition, it is equally important for one to gain such information from proper and reliable sources.Hence, we present herewith a basic idea of where you can go about looking for information on companies you wish to invest in.

Offer Documents

For a novice investor, it is always recommended that he understands a sector and its dynamics before jumping into understanding the workings of a particular company. One of the best sources for understanding a particular sector or industry is the offer document of the company (or a peer group company), if one can get hold of one. Every company which gets listed on the stock market needs to file an offer document with the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI).Apart from facts and figures about the company and its promoters, this document also contains information relating to the working of the industry (the company is involved in).One may refer to SEBI’s website to see the offer documents that have been issued over the past few years.

Annual Reports:

In case of a company for which you cannot get hold of the offer document given that the company has been listed on the stock exchanges for long, the annual report comes in handy. The director's report and the management discussion and analysis (MD&A) sections of an annual report provide good information related to the company and industry. However, as compared to the offer document, this information is usually related to the past year and the management's views on the outlook for the next year. Having said this, it would be advisable for one not to blindly take the management's views into consideration as more often than not; it tends to paint a rosy picture.

How to read an annual report:

Bse/Nse Announcements And Company Press Releases:

Even if an investor gets some 'inside information' on a particular company, it is difficult to determine how factual and accurate it is. Apart from annual reports (which are published on an annual basis), it is the official company documents such as press releases, announcements and presentations which are released in regular intervals. The source for such information is the BSE or NSE websites (in their respective corporate announcement sections) and the company's website.

Business Dailies And Other Media:

Newspapers and news channel are a great medium for gaining updates on companies. Interviews with managements provide good information on the views, plans and strategies of companies. However, information divulged from sources who do not wish to be named can be dicey. Reporters and journalists may get such news printed as they try to snoop around and find out stories relating to a particular company. But there have been a handful of cases wherein companies (on whom the news has been reported) have made announcements stating that the information is speculative or not true. As such, it would only be possible for an investor to judge the piece of news / information provided he is well acquainted with the company and its working.

Here Are 10 Tips From STEVE SCHAEFER ,Forbes

  • Buy low, sell high
  • There is no such thing as a sure thing
  • Get Familiar With Filings
  • Think long term (oh yes, this is a crucial one)
  • Dividends are your friend (considering they are a source of monetary income why not)
  • There is no perfect metric
  • A $5 stock isn't cheap and a $100 stock is not expensive (the price does not tell you the value inside)
  • Taxes can take a bite out of your profit (Always consider the taxes before making a trade)
  • Know what you need and what you are paying for
  • Take market news with whole shaker of salt ( don’t believe everything you see on TV or read on newspapers and magazines)

The Stock Exchange

Most of the trading in the Indian stock market takes place on its two stock exchanges: the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the National Stock Exchange (NSE). The BSE has been in existence since 1875. The NSE, on the other hand, was founded in 1992 and started trading in 1994. However, both exchanges follow the same trading mechanism, trading hours, settlement process, etc. At the last count, the BSE had about 4,700 listed firms, whereas the rival NSE had about 1,200. Out of all the listed firms on the BSE, only about 500 firms constitute more than 90% of its market capitalization; the rest of the crowd consists of highly illiquid shares.Almost all the significant firms of India are listed on both the exchanges. NSE enjoys a dominant share in spot trading, with about 70% of the market share, as of 2009, and almost a complete monopoly in derivatives trading, with about a 98% share in this market, also as of 2009. Both exchanges compete for the order flow that leads to reduced costs, market efficiency and innovation. The presence of arbitrageurs keeps the prices on the two stock exchanges within a very tight range.

Types Of Asset Classes

Equity: Equities are traded on the stock market. These could be in the primary or secondary market. In the primary market, companies get listed through an Initial Public Offering. Thus, new securities are available in the primary market. In the secondary market, investors buy or sell securities, which have already been issued. Currently, more than 1300 securities are available for trading on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) and over 6000 on Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE).

Derivatives: Derivatives give you an avenue to boost your returns from equities, by providing leverage through products like futures and options. Derivative instruments are available for shares, indices, currencies as well as commodities. Their value is tied to the underlying security.

Mutual Funds: Mutual funds are ideal for investors who want to invest in Indian equities, but do not have sufficient time and skills to choose winning sectors. Another advantage of investing in mutual funds is that it provides the necessary diversification to the portfolio. The money is invested across a wide variety of assets like stocks, bonds, gold, etc. to earn returns.

Initial Public Offerings (IPO): An IPO is the first sale of a company’s equity to the public. Existing shareholders can get an exit route or a better value for their investment. One can also be the part of the growth story of the issuing company.

Currency Derivatives: Currency derivatives is a contract between the seller and buyer, whose value is to be derived from the underlying asset, the currency value. It offers two advantages to the traders: an opportunity to benefit from currency value fluctuations, and a chance to minimize loss from currency value fluctuations due to various factors

Free Bonds Tax Bonds are a kind of debt instrument. By investing in this type of asset, the investor gives a loan to the issuing entity. The investors will be repaid at the end of the tenure. There are different kinds of bonds. Those bonds which are exempted from taxation on the interest income under the Income Tax Act, 1961 are called tax-free bonds. These are usually issued by government-backed entities.

Gold Funds: Gold ETFs are open-ended Mutual Funds that invest in Standard Gold Bullion of 99.5% purity. Instead of buying physical gold bullion, you can buy units of Gold ETFs that are equivalent to buying the real thing. The units you buy are stored in your demat account. This is why Gold ETFs are also called 'Paper Gold'.

Stock Lending and Borrowing (SLB): SLB is a system in which a trader can borrow shares that they do not already own, or can lend the stocks that they own. An SLB transaction has a rate of interest and a fixed tenure. SLBM helps reduce potential risks and losses.

Interest Rate Futures (IRF): An IRF is an agreement to buy, or sell, a debt instrument at a future date for a price fixed today. The underlying security for IRFs is usually a government bond or a treasury bill. In India, National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange offer trading in interest rate futures.

Types Of Stock Market Orders

Market Order : A market order is an order to buy and sell, that carries the demand to be executed immediately at the price the script is trading at the market. As long as there are willing sellers and buyers, market orders are filled. Market orders are therefore used when certainty of execution is a priority over price of execution. A market order is the simplest of the order types.

Limit Order : A limit order is an order that allows an individual to buy or sell an instrument as a particular price or a price better then the one placed. A limit order is only valid for a particular time set as per the buyer or the seller of the instrument, If the order does not get executed in the given time frame the order is then cancelled.

Stop Order : A stop order, also referred to as a stop-loss order, is an order to buy or sell a stock once the price of the stock reaches a specified price, known as the stop price. When the stop price is reached, a stop order becomes a market order. A buy stop order is entered at a stop price above the current market price.

Conditional Order : Conditional orders are orders that are automatically proceeded or canceled if particular aspects are met. Conditional orders have to be placed before the trade is submitted, and are considered the most basic form of trade automation.

Duration Order : As the name suggests the order carries instructions only to last a particular amount of time after that the order if not fulfilled shall be cancelled.

What is a balance sheet & how to analyze it?

Accounting is the language of business” – Warren buffet

What is a balance sheet?

  • A balance sheet in simple terms is a snapshot of a companies financial position with regards of its assets, liabilities, equity capital, debt etc. at a particular time. On one side of the balance sheet the assets are shown and on the other side of the balance sheet the liabilities are shown at the end both the liabilities and the assets should tally.
  • A balance sheet is a financial statement that reviews a firms assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a particular time. These balance sheet divisions provide investors with an idea as to what the company holds and owes, as well as the amount invested by shareholders.
  • The balance sheet abides by the following formula: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders' Equity

What is a balance sheet?

How to read a balance sheet?

How to analyze a balance sheet?

  • Remember the equation: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s equity
  • Know the assets: You should know the two asset class which are current assets (have a life span of one year or less) and non current/fixed assets (have a life span of more then a year).
  • Be acquainted with the liabilities: These are the financial obligations a company owes to an outside organization and alike the assets can be current/noncurrent. Long-term liabilities will include things like 5 year loans, debentures etc. while current liabilities will include things like an overdraft taken from a bank account.
  • Learn about the shareholder’s equity: Shareholder’s equity is the initial amount of money invested in the business. If, at the end of the fiscal year, a company decides to reinvest its net earnings into the company (after taxes), these retained earnings will be transferred from the income statement onto the balance sheet into the shareholder's equity account. This account represents a company's total net worth. In order for the balance sheet to balance, total assets on one side have to equal total liabilities plus shareholders' equity on the other.
  • Evaluate using ratios: Financial ratio analysis uses formulas get familiar with the company and its operations. In the balance sheet, using financial ratios (like the debt-to-equity ratio) can give you an enhanced idea of the firm’s financial situation along with its operational efficiency. It is essential to note that a few ratios require information from more than one financial statement, such as from the balance sheet and the income statement. You can find these ratios on our fundamental analysis page.

What is the 'Equity Market

"How many millionaires do you know who have become wealthy by investing in savings accounts? I rest my case." - Robert G. Allen

Here you will find a link, that contains an article regarding the analysis of Apple’s balance sheet by

The market in which shares are issued and traded, either through exchanges or over-the-counter markets. Also known as the stock market, it is one of the most vital areas of a market economy because it gives companies access to capital and investors a slice of ownership in a company with the potential to realize gains based on its future performance. 

Equity markets are the meeting point for buyers and sellers of stocks. The securities traded in the equity market can be either public stocks, which are those listed on the stock exchange, or privately traded stocks. Often, private stocks are traded through dealers, which is the definition of an over-the-counter market.

What is nifty?

"The stock market is a device for transferring money from the impatient to the patient”, Warren buffet

Nifty is an equity benchmark index in India introduced by the National Stock Exchange on April 21, 1996. The term 'Nifty' is derived from the combination of two words - 'National' and 'Fifty' - as it consist of 50 actively traded stocks accounting for 12 sectors of the economy. It is used for a variety of purposes such as bench-marking fund portfolios, index based derivatives and index funds.

Nifty is one of the most actively traded contracts in the world. It is owned and managed by India Index Services and Products (IISL), which is a wholly owned subsidiary of the NSE Strategic Investment Corporation Limited. IISL is India's specialized company focused upon the index as a core product. It is one of the largest single financial products in India, with an ecosystem comprising of - exchange traded funds (onshore and offshore), exchange-traded futures and options (at NSE in India and at SGX and CME abroad), other index funds and OTC derivatives (mostly offshore). The Nifty 50 Index represents about 62.9% of the free float market capitalization of the stocks listed on NSE as on March 31, 2017.

Why do stock prices matter to the companies

The stock market is filled with individuals who know the price of everything, but the value of nothing - Phillip Fisher

“It’s far better to buy a wonderful company at a fair price, than a fair company at a wonderful price.” – Warren buffet

Those in Management are Often Shareholders Too

The first and most obvious reason why those in management care about the stock market is that they typically have a monetary interest in the company. It's not unusual for a public company's founder to own a significant number of outstanding shares, and it's also not unusual for the company's management to have salary incentives or stock options tied to the company's stock prices. For these two reasons, managers act as stockholders and thus pay attention to their stock price.

Wrath of the Shareholders

Too often, investors forget that stock means ownership. Management's job is to produce gains for the shareholders. Although a manager has little or no control of share price in the short run, poor stock performance could, over the long run, be attributed to company mismanagement. If the stock price consistently underperforms shareholders' expectations, the shareholders will be unhappy with management and look for changes. In extreme cases, shareholders can band together and try to oust current management in a proxy fight. To what extent shareholders can control management is debatable. Nevertheless, executives must always factor in shareholders' desires since these shareholders are part owners of the company.


Another main role of the stock market is to act as a barometer for financial health. Analysts are constantly scrutinizing companies, and this information affects the companies' traded securities. Because of this, creditors tend to look favorably upon companies whose shares are performing strongly. This preferential treatment is in part due to the tie between a company's earnings and its share price. Over the long term, strong earnings are a good indication that the company will be able to meet debt requirements. As a result, the company will receive cheaper financing through a lower interest rate, which in turn increases the amount of value returned from a capital project. Alternatively, favorable market performance is useful for a company seeking additional equity financing. If there is demand, a company can always sell more shares to the public to raise money. Essentially this is like printing money, and it isn't bad for the company as long as it doesn't dilute its existing share base too much, in which case issuing more shares can have horrible consequences for existing shareholders.

Prey & predator

Unlike private companies, publicly traded companies stand vulnerable to takeover by another company if they allow their share price to decline substantially. This exposure is a result of the nature of ownership in the company. Private companies are usually managed by the owners themselves, and the shares are closely held. If private owners don't want to sell, the company cannot be taken over. Publicly traded companies, on the other hand, have shares distributed over a large base of owners who can easily sell at any time. To accumulate shares for the purpose of takeover, potential bidders are better able to make offers to shareholders when they are trading at lower prices. For this reason, companies would want their stock price to remain relatively stable, so that they remain strong and deter interested corporations from taking them over. On the other side of the takeover equation, a company with a hot stock has a great advantage when looking to buy other companies. Instead of having to buy with cash, a company will simply issue more shares to fund the takeover. In strong markets this is extremely common - so much that a strong stock price is a matter of survival in competitive industries.


Yea you heard it right ’EGO’, a company may aim to increase share simply to increase its prestige and exposure to the public. Managers are human too, and like anybody they are always thinking ahead to their next job. The larger a company's market capitalization, the more analyst coverage the company will receive. Essentially, analyst coverage is a form of free publicity and allows both senior managers and the company itself to introduce themselves to a wider audience.

What is the Equity Market?

Equity, the word is so friendly and co-operative but when it joins the word market, this becomes the worst nightmare to most of us. Lack of knowledge creates fear, so to put it simply Equities are the stocks or shares of the company and any Investor investing in the company’s equity shares becomes the Equity Shareholder of the company and gains the ownership rights of that company. These shares cannot be traded by simple buying and selling from the company but it needs to be traded on a common universal platform and that platform is known as Equity Market or Stock Market or Share Market. The shares of all the companies are listed in the stock exchange and it acts as a meeting ground for the buyers and the sellers.

There are various kinds of instruments which can be traded like In case of shares:

  • Equity Shares
  • Preference Shares

In case of Debentures:

  • Partly Convertible Debentures
  • Fully Convertible Debentures
  • Non Convertible Debentures
  • Warrants / Coupons / Secured Premium Notes/ other Hybrids
  • Bonds

There are as many as 23 Stock Exchange in India and NSE (National Stock Exchange) and BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) being the dominant ones. Every country has numerous Stock Exchanges and New York Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange Group are the most dominant ones in the world.

What happens in the market?

Let us teach you some ground rules.

See the Shares and other instruments of various companies are offered in two ways, either directly by the company in their IPO (Initial Public Offering) or in a second-hand sale by other sellers transacting in the market.

So the investor or the potential investor bids for stocks by offering a certain price and on the other hand the seller asks for a certain price, if both agree on a certain price then the transaction happens and our very own potential investor becomes an investor in the company, Cheers to that!

But what is the need of doing all this for the company?

Any Company working on a medium or large scale will obviously need a large amount of money to run

its business operations and in order to raise fund, the company knocks the door of Equity market. Companies sell their shares and stocks in the market to get the capital to grow their business and when a company is offering its stocks and shares in the market that means the company is offering a small part of its ownership and it is incorporated as a Public Company. No private company can offer their stock and shares in this open market, after all there is a reason to why a Private company is known as a Private Company. If a Public Company does well, then the shareholders gets rewarded with a part of profit for their share but the risk rises when the company is not doing well as the value of their shares will go down, hence killing their profit. However, most companies list their stocks on multiple market for easy and smooth allocation of funds and sometimes they also hires the professional underwriters to monitor and purchase their shares.

What happens in the market?

For people who are not really literate about the where’s and how’s of this market can rely on the share brokers. The online or the electronic stock-exchange often has stock brokers who are also known as match-makers, who deal in both the buying and selling of the shares for a smooth flow in the market, they will guide you about the shares and stocks and which shares bring the most profit. The Brokers sitting at Major stock exchanges are the battle-tested bayonets and will surely make your investment grow rich.

How to manage your portfolio

In this fast paced life, there are times when we forget to button our cuffs or at times even recalling what we ate last night then how can we expect to keep a proper track of our investments in the stock exchange.Imagine having a huge back-yard garden and keeping track of all the budding flowers and plants, gets difficult no?

Keeping track of stock exchange is very tricky but crucial because it involves money and if we are talking about maintaining the portfolio it involves substantial money hence requires special attention.

What to look for?

To start off, there are so many things to look for when it comes to managing and keeping a track of your portfolio that only one thing cannot be prioritize. Here are some of the things you will like to look into while managing your portfolio:

News and announcements on stocks and companies- You need to constantly check upon the news and announcements on your stocks and the company you have invested in. You cannot afford to lose on your money because of lack of knowledge about your stocks.

Reports of the company- You should know the standing of your company in the market. Usually after you have purchased your stock, you lose a track of the market and reports of the company so you need to constantly check the monthly and yearly reports of the company.

Interest payments and Call dates- There are various interest payments made by the company throughout the year so you need to keep a track of the dates of interest payments and inform the company in case you do not receive any. Also the call dates for the share capital shall also be tracked so that you do not miss out on any call payment. An arrear in payment might cost you loss of the dividends and other benefits.

Portfolio performance and relative markets- You need to check how your portfolio is working in your market and what are the opportunity costs that you are missing out. Your portfolio might not be working good in your market but it could have worked great in other markets, so a comprehensive check with the relative market needs to be done.

Tools to keep track

Now that we have already discussed what to look for to keep a track of your portfolio, let’s discuss how can you do it:

Self- In case you are tight on budget or already very skilled with the stock market and its calculation then you can do it all by your own. To keep a record of the purchase price, fall and rise in prices you need some easy and handy software to use. Microsoft Excel sheets and Google Spreadsheets can be used interchangeably for the recording purpose.

Broker- A broker can do it all! A good solid broker can keep track of your portfolio and make appropriate changes in your portfolio at times when required. Brokers are the angels of stock exchange; they help you from opening your trading account to working your way up in the market. With some extra fees a broker will be good to go to be your human tracker.

Online Tools- There are various online software to keep a track of your portfolio like Morningstar, Ellevest,Google finance, ticker to name a few. They come with graph plotting system to give a better understanding of how your stocks have been performing in the market. These online tools come with various features for a better and sound understanding and management of your portfolio.


What are dividends?

Ever wondered what are dividends? Dividends are simply out of profit revenue. A dividend is the distribution of the part of the company’s earning as structured by the top level management of the company. Dividend is earned on the shares of the company and if an investor has purchased the shares of the company then the investor has full right to receive the dividend. Dividends are decided by the Directors of the company and are to be paid to shareholders annually or quarterly.

How to earn them?

Well anybody can earn dividend, you just need to purchase the shares of the company. The company manage its fund from various sources like debentures, loans, issue of shares, bonds etc. Debentures and loans are to be paid back after a fixed amount of time and a fixed interest is to be paid on them annually or quarterly. In case of shares, the shareholders acts as the part owners of the company and so they are not obliged to fixed returns but only out of profit. The shareholders have a right in decision making unlike the debenture holders. The dividends received by the shareholders are not directly out of profit, first the company pays off all its debts and expenses and after that incase there is some residuary income then it is paid to shareholders as dividends on their shares. There are various schemes for receiving dividends in USA and other parts of the world like reinvesting dividend. The dividends to be received are made in such an arrangement for the elderly, to receive dividends every month or every quarter to meet their daily expenses.The Young investors can also ask for cumulative payment after a fixed period of time, usually a long period of 5-10 years to make their fruitful investment portfolio. But still you cannot escape the tax liability, though the dividends won’t be taxable in case of reinvestment but will be taxed while receiving the full amount. The dividend yields higher than the bonds and debentures due to share appreciation.

How to calculate them?

The dividends paid to the shareholders can be calculated by two easy methods:

1. Dividend per Share (DPS)

The DPS is nothing but the total amount of fund attributed to the individual shareholder of the company. The amount to be received on per share basis can be calculated through DPS. The simple formula to find out DPS is:

DPS= Total dividend paid/ Share outstanding Or DPS= Earning Per Share/ Dividend Payout Ratio

Firstly, the total dividend paid by the company and the shares outstanding needs to be checked from the financial statements and then total dividend paid needs to be divided by the total shares outstanding to reach the Dividend Per Share.

Other way can be to check how much earning per share is made and then divide it by the dividend payout ratio of the company. Both of these methods will help you to reach to the DPS to calculate the dividends.

2. Dividend Yield Ratio

The Dividend Yield Ratio simply measures the value of penny invested in the company. It is the method to measure the amount of cash inflow the company is getting back for each dollar invested in the shares.

The formula to find out Dividend Yield Ratio is:

DYR= annual dividend per share/ stock price per share

You just need to calculate the annual dividend per share by the company and the stock price per share of the company and when you have both the values just divide the annual dividend per share by the stock price per share.

Stop Loss

What is Stop Loss?

When you go through various instruments in the stock market, you must have heard terms like ‘stop loss’ or ‘stop order market’ at some point of time. Stop loss is an instrument that plays with a different set of rules than the normal trading. In normal trading, you purchase or sell x number of shares at y price at the same time and the transaction gets over, there’s no waiting. But in stop loss order you clearly mention a price at which you will buy or sell the securities. This is an automatic transaction as when the price reaches the level stipulated by the other person then the transaction is made. It removes the constant need to monitor the prices of the stock market instruments. The order is automatically executed as per the prior discussed terms. This method is used to make short term gains and to play for a long term in the market.

Let’s go through the pros and cons:-


Allows you to choose your own price- The stop-loss option allows the holder to choose his own price of trading. He is free to purchase or sell the securities when it reaches his stipulated price.

Helps monitor multiple deals- When the price of one stock of shares is already decided and the bid is passed on then the investor can focus on his other part of securities. He may have a portfolio of different kind of securities and this will give him a chance to place a bid on his portfolio of securities and put the flight on auto-pilot mode.

Maintains an organized profile of instruments- The price of the securities are already placed in advance for the trade, so this gives enough time to the investor to manage his profile of instruments. Now that most of his profile is on auto-pilot mode, he can finally explore and trick around with his instruments in the market, opening new gates of investment for him in the stock exchange.

Protection from excessive loss- As the prices are already set by you which will include your profit margin or your margin of safety so this will protect you from the excessive losses. As sometimes, the investor losses a track of his instruments and later on finds out that his instruments are incurring him huge losses so this factor is also eliminated.


Stipulating price is difficult- The stock market is highly volatile so the price speculation gets very difficult. Deciding the price in advance to buy or sell a security at that price needs precision and years of expertise which might not be there in case of the beginners.

Limited profit- Sometimes the market price might surpass your stipulated price for the instrument which limits your profit.

Loss of interest in the market- Entering the stock market is all about constant monitoring of the securities and if it is missing in this process then it might lead to the loss of interest of the investor.

How to put?

This is very easy. This process is auto-pilot mode as you just need to mention clearly your terms for the purchase or sale of the securities and when the securities reache that certain price level then the transaction is executed.

How does the share market work?

The flow of the share market is very processed and hassle-free. The shares in the share market enter in a very poised and structured manner. The whole process of how the share market work begins in the primary market then it is taken to the secondary market for further trading. The whole framework of the share market and its procedure is governed under the strict guidelines of SEBI and Companies Act, 2013. Every company has to stick to these guidelines for a healthy run of the company as over-riding or ignorance of any such guidelines will attract penalty and loses confidence in the eyes of the investor.

The detailed process of how the share market is listed down below:

Primary Market- This is the first stage of the share market. In this stage, the shares of the company are introduced to the public, private investors and under-writers in case the shares don’t get fully subscribed. In short, the primary market is the part of the share market where new securities are initially issued. These new securities are then made ready for the initial public offering to raise capital.

Initial Public Offering (IPO)- IPO is the stage where the new securities are introduced to the general public for the first time and then the general public are asked to subscribe the shares. There is a minimum subscription criterion in case of IPO that if the 90% of the issued capital is not subscribed then the money of all the investors will be returned in 60 days. In case the company fails in returning the money within a stipulated time then the company will be liable for a penalty as per SEBI guidelines and Company law, 2013.

Share Distribution- When the issued share capital of the company in the market is fully subscribed then the shares of the company are distributed to its holder. Traditionally, a share used to come in a paper format after the issuance of shares but now de-mat account has dumped the paper format. The de-mat account has all the details regarding the volume, price and other characteristics of the shares.The de-mat account has also made shares easily transferable as now the shares can be traded just by a click of a button.

Trading- The holder of the shares can sell his shares at his will. Now that the shares are out of the company and are transferred to the holders, the holders can now sell and purchase the shares at their option. If a holder is getting a good price for his holding then he can easily sell out his shares in the open market. After going through the funnel of IPO and share distribution, the shares can now be freely transacted in the secondary market.

Classification of shares

Classification of shares and the need of classification

The stock market is filled with n number of instruments floating around and to understand every type of instrument, there is a need to first classify these shares. After all, you must know in advance what you are investing in!

Here are five bases of classification of shares based on various factors:

  • On the basis of ownership
  • On the basis of dividend payments
  • On the basis of market capitalization
  • On the basis of risk
  • On the basis of time

Every stock market instrument is covered under these sub-heads for the basis of classification. Was the classification of shares necessary? The answer is a clear YES! When you are entering the stock exchange, you need to understand different instruments and then make a sound investing decision to gain the maximum profit. The basis of classification of shares allows the investor to understand the different instruments with a check-list in their hand.

Classification on the basis of market capitalization

Today, we are going to understand the classification of shares on the basis of market capitalization.

First of all, what is market capitalization?

Market capitalization is the market value of the total shareholding of the company which is calculated by simply multiplying the share price by the total number of issued shares.

Now, on the basis of market capitalization, shares can be classified as:

  • Small-cap shares
  • Mid-cap shares
  • Large-cap shares

The term ‘cap’ used here is nothing but the capitalization.

Let us discuss in detail about each kind of shares:

Small-cap shares- Very evidently it can be understood from the name that these shares are the shares whose market value is smallest. These small-cap shares usually belong to the small scale companies in the market of capital not exceeding 250 crores. The nature of these shares is highly volatile in nature as there is no fixed direction in growth of the small scale companies. The small scale companies are considered best investment for the beginners as the small scale companies has the potential to grow rapidly and boost the returns to the investors, but the prediction of a potentially good company is very difficult.

Mid-cap shares- These shares belongs to the mid-scale companies with capital ranging from 250 crores to 4000 crores. These shares offer the best of both the worlds as these companies have the market stability and still spark up with the potential of dramatic growth. Due to its trait of stability, these shares are well known in the market and are also known as mini blue chips or baby blue chips. These shares give a positive indication of growth but fall short in size when compared with blue chips.

Large-cap shares- Also famously known as blue chips.The reputation of the large companies brings investor money on the table. Although the blue chips might not show exponential growth over a period of time, these shares definitely blossoms the best dividends in the market.

Upper and lower circuits

There’s an old saying that “Everything is fair in love and war.”

This rule also applies in the stock market but the circuits are applied to curb influence on the market.

The stock exchange is highly volatile in nature. The stock prices of various stocks of the listed companies are influenced by many factors such as running trends in the market, market speculation, government policies, company’s financial position etc. Though sometimes directly influenced and sometimes indirectly, the market is highly volatile and can go in any direction. Even a small change in the market can influence the stock price to a large extent. The intensity with which these market factors influence the market cannot be quantified, as the same factor may hit the market several times at different angles, giving a totally different output every time. So, to curb the volatility of the market up to a certain extent, the concept of upper and lower circuits was introduced. Imagine situations like India winning a world cup in cricket will shoot up the prices of the sports utility manufacturers, the demise of a national figure leading to a market crash or highly upward and downward movement just after the budget speech, how do we put a limit to the crazy balls in the stock market? The answer is simple, by putting the upper and lower limits.

What exactly is a circuit?

Circuits are nothing but the specific limit on the upward and downward movement of the stock exchange. Circuits are of two types: Index circuit and stock circuit. So to put it simply, when the stock price or the index price moves in any direction beyond a certain limit then it enters into the circuit which restricts any further movement of the prices.

Is there a circuit breaker too?

Yes, there is a term called circuit breaker which is applied on the equity and derivate market, and when they cross the threshold level the trading at the stock exchange needs to be stopped for a period ranging from half an hour to even an entire day to allow the market to cool down from the exhaustion.

Given below is the table showing the stage-wise threshold process:

Movement in Indices Time Close period

10 per cent

Before 1.00 pm

1 hour

1.00 pm to 2.30 pm

½ hour

After 2.30 pm

Does not close

15 per cent

Before 1.00 pm

2 hour

1.00 pm to 2.30 pm

1  hour

After 2.30 pm

Close for the rest of the day

20 per cent

Any time

Close for the rest of the day

Then what are upper and lower limits?

As discussed above,the stock market is highly volatile and to avoid unnecessary gains and losses to the parties of the stock exchange, upper and lower limits are implemented. The upper circuit restricts the upward movement of stock prices beyond which the price of stock cannot rise and the lower circuit restricts the extreme downward movement to avoid unnecessary losses to the investors. For a healthy and smooth operation of the stock market, the upper and lower circuits are implemented.

Types of Investment options in India

Grey haired or not, there’s never a bad time to start investing and especially in the current scenario when inflation is rising with a never seen pace, you need to keep a good track of investment opportunities around you. Well, to your rescue we are here with some good investment options that are available in India.

Two very simple and vastly practiced ways of investing money are:

1. Where your money attracts money- Eh, what? Yes, you heard it right. You always have an option to lend money to someone or some organization for some fixed amount of time at a pre decided interest rate so that when your money will be back to you, it won’t be the same, you will also be receiving the interest on that money.

2. Buy something that could do wonders- Yes, sounds magical, but industry of real-estate and few commodities are actually known to do wonders. You never know, your investment may touch the sky overnight. For this, you need to follow trend of a particular industry and cash in when it looks like it will be the best time for investment.

There are then very specific investment options which have been proved very effective among masses like:

1. Fixed Deposits: There stands no chance that you haven’t heard of FD’s yet. FD’s are the best thing for both short term and long term investment. Our parents have trusted all their life in FD’s and there is a reason to it. FD’s are safe investment as they are made to the banks and bank will be liable to pay our dues so this has stood out as a safe investment.

2. IPO (Initial Public Offering): This can actually be a game changer if you what you are looking for? If you are a stock exchange guru or have the potential to work wonders at stock exchange then you can turn your money into piles of money and more. A good understanding of the market conditions and the potentials of the upcoming companies can actually make your investment rich.

3. Gold: It’s not just about the lustre, it’s the value beneath. Well with this increasing inflation at the international market every day, even the prices of gold is touching the sky and those who have invested in gold long before are living a lavish life today. Investment in gold needs time and patience, also you need to know the market conditions of both domestic and international market. Price of gold keeps on fluctuating and one can easily make money if he knows the right time to invest in.

4. Bonds: If you are hesitant about entering the Share market then please face this side. Bonds are safe investments and in fact some bonds are controlled and regulated by govt. so that makes it all the more attractive and a safe investment. Investment in bond is usually done for long period of time like 10 to 20 years but they fetch very good rate of return, as high as 7-8% on your investment.

5. Mutual Funds: Confused between Bonds and Shares, we know just your kind and have something for you. Mutual funds are for those who are willing to take a calculated risk, somewhere mutual funds are a good mix of both risk and safety. Mutual fund is a balance of risk and return. Mutual fund is a well managed scheme where their team of professional make a basket of different instruments like shares, bonds, debentures and that basket of diverse instruments brings the highest returns.

Why One Should Invest in Shares?

Because, it is the shortest way to money and success. NO!!! If this is what comes to your mind, then you are totally wrong. Shares or say any other instruments are not any sure-shot short-term plan for success. Investment in shares is not a calk-walk, it requires a well research and proper planning before you invest in shares to earn handsome profits or else you can just invest in any other shares and get returns like any other guy.

Equities or Shares are directly linked to the company’s growth so they are commonly known as growth assets. The Hoax created around shares that they are cash cows or brings fast money is because of the fact that they have consistently out-performed Govt. instruments like bonds, properties and other types of assets. This doesn’t undermine the fact that shares are a risky business but the risk is definitely worth taking.

Here we have few points to help you why you need to invest in shares:

Like POKER game, you don’t need to go all-in

You might have a practice of going all-in in a go in your poker games but share market doesn’t play with the same rules. In share market, you make a sweet small bundle of a mix of varied stock, which will include high risk and low risk shares to balance the risk and fetch you the most returns.

Stocks displayed the most potential for growth

Shares and real estate have shown the most potential for growth in the recent future and have consistently performed well. An investment in the real-estate and shares of reputed company has never gone in vain and has always fetched higher returns when compared to other instruments. You cannot depend on FD’s and bonds forever.

To keep pace with the rising inflation

Nowadays, we are already witnessing high inflation rates due to which our purchasing power is decreasing so we shall be taking immediate steps to retain our savings or put our money in some good use. Your fixed deposits cannot save you from this inflation as mere 5-7% won’t aid you against prices hikes so you need to invest in stocks of high performing companies which will fetch you good 15-20% returns.

Your money will work for you

Because, money attracts money. Yes you need to let your money work for you. When you invest in a stock, try to keep patience and wait until it fetches you good return and when the value of your stock gets at its peak then you can sell it. The prices of stocks may fall in the short run but if you are willing to take a risk and be patient then you are sure to get high returns.

Don’t underestimate the power of Compound interest

Most of the banks give you simple linear rate of interest on your savings which doesn’t really adds up a lot to your investment. While on the other hand if you invest in stocks of the companies, your ROI on the sum of money will be compounded annually, this will grow your investment exponentially.

How to Start Investing in Shares?

With everything getting easily accessible digitally, we are into this new age, where we do not need to go out to the company and ask for their prospectus and shares price and their financial statements. Every information is available online and you just need to login with your keys to find the best shares and best brokers online. A new entrant with high curiosity in the market can take some lessons online and open his Demat account and play and understand the market with a little investment but if you are here to make some serious investment then finding a good broker will be the first step. Now below are some points to keep in mind while entering in this market and investing in in your first share.

The volume and the place

First and foremost you need to decide what volume you want to cash in. The volume of money you need to invest plays a major role as huge investment will require higher degree of market understanding. The beginners who have nothing to lose but gain a lot of knowledge from the stock exchange shall invest in bits and pieces and try experimenting with different profiles of stocks and shares.

Best stock exchange to invest in

After you have decided your bet money, now you need to come up with a name. NAME? WHAT? Yes you need to come up with a name of Stock Exchange where you wish to invest in. There are various Stock Exchange in India and the major being BSE and NSE. If you are looking to invest in short term and intraday shares then you can take up NSE as your platform and if you are looking long terms or more diverse stocks then you shall go for the BSE.

Full service broker or online trading platform

A full service broker will guide you through the pathway and will literate you about stocks and shares, he will also be maintaining your portfolio and advice you on your investment decisions and in return he will be asking for his fees and on the other hand Online trading platform will give you access of your account and there will be no direct contact with the experts as you will be handling your account on your own. Full service broker is better if you are a total beginner and you want to learn the stock exchange and if you want to learn all the how’s and what’s by your own then you shall go for an Online trading platform.

De-mat account and its requirements

Initially shares were transacted in hard copies i.e., papers and one used to get the papers of all the shares allotted to him but as we entered this new era everything got electronic and even shares got electronic. This is why these online accounts are known as De-mat account as they have de materialized the paper work. Now what you need to open a De-mat account? It’s a very simple process, you just need to choose your platform as now various banks are also offering this service. Now you just need to furnish your PAN card, Aadhaar card, 6 months bank statements, address proof, signature and passport size photos and you are good to go.

Choosing your first share

You need to align your short term and long term goals with your investment strategy to invest in your very first share. Your first investment is very crucial as if you do not play this move wisely then you might get disinterested in the very beginning and will quit. First investment will play a key role in deciding your future growth in this market. Try investing in shares with high reputation in market as this reduce your chances of failure to some extent.

Invest only your surplus

Stock Exchange is a volatile market and is highly fluctuating every minute. So chip in only if you have surplus lying in your bank balance. There’s no 100% surety as to your investment in the share market, it may drown in a minute or may transform rags to riches in few months.

Be active

Well, we are living in a Global Village and so we need to be abreast to the latest trends and changes. Any major or even minor but relevant event has an impact on our financial market and we need to be in touch with them. We also need to have very realistic expectations from our dealings in market.

How to Value Shares?

Don’t get confused, you must have come across various methods to value shares which might have left you all confusing. There are various methods by which you can value the shares and here we break it down to you in simple jargon-free language, how to value shares. The below-mentioned points will help you understand the valuation of shares in a better way:

Price to earnings ratio

The P/e ratio measures the relationship between a company’s stock price and its earning per shares of the stocks already issued. Now how it is calculated? Well, the formula is very easy, Price per share/Earning per share. What does it indicate? Simple, If the P/e ratio is high of a company then the investor and potential investor will have more confidence in the stock of the company and the demand of the company's stock will rise and will result in a higher valuation of the shares. P/e ratio helps a lot in the valuation of shares as it is directly related to the stock price. The P/e ratio can highly affect the value of the stock.

Dividend Yield

This has been witnessed that whenever a company announces its dividend, the price of the stock of the company fluctuates. Now to tell you why? Because the Dividend distributed among the shareholders of the company has a major impact on the price of the shares of the company. If the Dividend yield is high and the company is distributing more and more dividend among its shareholders after deducting all its cost that means the company is earning huge profit and the company has surplus money which attracts the potential investors to invest in.

Operating profit margin

The operating profit margin is in short the profit that the company makes in its daily business and not from any sale or purchase of some machinery, so this profit also has an impact on the value of shares. When a company has a high operating profit margin and is actually earning huge profits then this makes one thing clear that the company has the capacity to pay a huge dividend to its shareholders. Higher operating profit margin indicates an increase in demand for the stock which will value higher the stock prices.

Price to book ratio

No, seriously? Yes seriously, even the price to book ratio has a big impact on the value of shares. This Price to Book ratio shows one simple thing if the company gets torn up today then what will be the net worth of the company or what will be the company left with. This is a very useful technique because some companies may not be doing well in their business operations but their net worth is still high due to their high valued assets. The various assets that company has invested in during their tenure have a lot of impact on the value of the shares and a higher book value of the assets means higher net worth of the company. The higher net worth of the company also helps in building the reputation of the company and thus has a major impact on the value of shares.

Stock Exchanges: NSE and BSE

The NSE (National Stock Exchange) and BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange)

If in any case you are connected to stocks or stock market then you must be having some basic idea about the stock exchanges and surely you must have came across these names NSE and BSE. NSE and BSE are the largest Stock Exchanges in India. The stocks of big and famous companies in India are listed either in NSE or BSE, or sometimes in both.

NSE: It is the biggest stock exchange in India and also world’s 3rd largest stock exchange in terms of transactions. The NSE has quickly grown to its prominence since its creation in 1992. The NSE has nearly 1700 listings and a market capitalization of $1.4 trillion. The NSE is very active and its transparency for frauds is considered better than BSE. Its Claim to fame is that it is the largest stock exchange in India in terms of daily turnover and number of trades. The CEO of NSE is Vikram Limaya who has resigned from a Supreme Court-appointed BCCI committee.

BSE: It is the oldest stock exchange in Asia established in 1875. The BSE is the biggest Stock Exchange, its long life span has resulted in having more than 5400 listings and a market capitalization of more than $1.6 trillion. Its claim to fame is that it is the oldest stock exchange in India. The CEO of BSE is Ashish Chauhan who is also a Distinguished Visiting professor at Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Listing and Indices

Why listing? Listing means formal admission of a security to the trading platform of the Exchange. The main goal of listing is to provide liquidity to securities and mobilizing people’s savings for economic development. There are various compliances to be made to list securities under the stock exchange like complying with Companies Act, 1956, SCRA and guidelines provided by SEBI.

Now where are they indexed or showed or displayed? The main index of BSE is SENSEX and the main index of NSE is NIFTY. These indexes are the indicators of how the companies listed under the stock exchange are doing and their market position as depicted by the value of their Share Value.

Trading Mechanism

Everything Is Electronic here now, trading at both of these Stock Exchanges is also electronic and an investor just need to quote the price for the particular stock and when the price will be matched with the best price of the buyer and seller then the transaction will be completed. The advantage of this order-driven process is anonymity. All orders in the trading system are placed by the brokers and they also provide online trading facility to retail customers.

Settlement cycle and trading hours

Trading on the equities segment takes place on all days of the week (except Saturdays and Sundays and holidays declared by the Exchange in advance). The market timings of the equities segment are:

(1) Pre-open session

  • Order entry & modification Open: 09:00 hrs
  • Order entry & modification Close: 09:08 hrs

(2) Regular trading session

  • Normal/Retail Debt/Limited Physical Market Open: 09:15 hrs
  • Normal/Retail Debt/Limited Physical Market Close: 15:30 hrs

Restriction and Investment ceiling

The Govt. of India is taking progressive steps day by day and has been trying to attract investments in the Domestic market. There is an issue over the FDI across various sectors but the Govt. of India is taking progressive steps to ease the investment in Indian market. There is also a restriction on FII’s and a certain limit has been prescribed in various sectors. Please check the latest FDI list and the limit for more information.

Taxation in Capital Market

Having trouble with your taxation? Sitting with your CA and sorting out all your confusions and still doing appropriate tax saving is a cumbersome business and here we help you with an easy prep for a good understanding of taxation in Capital Market. See Taxation gives you heart-attack, we know it and we care for you, so here we stuff you up with the required knowledge if you are dealing in Capital market and have troubles with taxation.

Well, First thing first, the due dates, what are the due dates for filing the returns? The dates are July 31 for the individuals and September 30 for the companies, irrespective of the business or trade they are into. And Also the accounts needs to be audited in case the total turnover exceeds 1crore and on failure of submitting the tax audit, a penalty of 0.5% or 1.5 lakhs, whichever is less will be imposed. The gains made from Stock Exchanges are usually distinguished under the head Capital gains and will be taxed as per their holding period.

There are two types of Capital Gains in case of Investment in capital market and they are:

  • 1. STCG (Short Term Capital Gain)
  • 2. LTCG (Long Term Capital Gain)

1. STCG: If you have made any gains from shares within 1 year then it is known as STCG and it will be liable for 15% taxation. You can always set off your business expenses with this gain in STCG. Any STCG losses can be carried forward to 8 years and can be set off against business income. There is also one category as Intra-day meaning the transactions where buying and selling happens in a single day and any gains or losses made from it are called Speculative Gains or Losses. These Speculative gains are deemed as business income and taxed accordingly and the speculative losses can be carried forward up to 4 years but cannot be adjusted against any other profits.

2. LTCG: If you have invested in shares and stocks for more than 1 year then it will be known as LTCG. In case of profits, the profit will be liable for 20% taxation and if you have already paid STT (Security Transaction Tax)then it is exempt from tax under section 10(38). In case of Loss, if STT has been paid already then it cannot be adjusted against STCG but if not paid then it can be adjusted.

What to do with Brokerage, STT and other Trading Costs?

STT is paid during our buying when dealing in trading stocks so no further treatment is required as it will be already included in the cost of your shares and derivates and all your trading and other costs or expenses can be shown as your expense on while calculating your gross income.

Which ITR form to use?

Depending on your source of income the ITR forms are to be filled and ITR 1, 2, 4 are generally used for individuals with either salary income with rentals or salary income with rentals and interests, or business and profession income, and ITR 6 is to be filled by the companies.

Why and How Do Price Shares Fluctuate?

Well, if this question was that simple then everybody would have tapped in the share market and gained millions but sadly it is not that simple. If you have been in touch with the share market and have some knowledge about the prices of shares then you must know that the prices of shares are highly volatile in nature and it is really difficult to estimate the share value of your shares after a period of sometime. Your share or stock prices changes every day by market forces and you cannot have the exact idea about the stipulated fall or rise in price. By market force, we mean that the prices of shares are driven by the demand and supply. It is easy to understand about the forces demand and supply but what is difficult is that why some particular shares or what makes a stock of shares so much popular among the masses.The power of god compels you to? Nah, it is necessary to research and understand the behavior of the masses, on what decision they buy or sell a particular stock of shares.

What is Price Fluctuation and why do stock prices change so much?

First of all let’s discuss what exactly Price-Fluctuation is. In share market, in an auction of sale of shares, there are many players who bids, and the highest bidder wins the auction and the transaction gets completed. When the demand for a particular type of share rises then the price of that share increases but if the demand goes down then the price of the shares also declines. This is a simple application of demand and supply in the share market. Sometimes the price of the shares goes too down or rises with a boom during some season and that is the price fluctuation. Sometimes there is a surge in suppliers of a particular stock waiting to dump in the market and lack of buyers, which leads to decline in price of shares. There are various reasons to price fluctuation but the core is demand and supply forces in the market.

What causes Stock prices to fluctuate? What is the main reason behind demand and supply?

Now here we list down the various reasons behind demand and supply fluctuation and how do they affect the share prices:

  • Breakout of relevant news regarding the company: Sometimes, some confidential and relevant news regarding a product of the company which has a direct impact on company’s reputation gets leaked out and that either shoots up the prices or we see a drastic decline in the prices of share.
  • Mind of the buyer: : We cannot distinguish between investors, although they might invest in same stock but may have totally different mindset so mind set also plays a major role in the price fluctuation of shares.
  • Seasonal factors: Some companies shines in some particular season and during the rest of the year they are just doing fine so this has a huge impact on the prices of the shares.
  • Psychological factors: Stock market does not only runs on profit but emotions also drives the stock market. The greed of high returns and the fear of losses influences the stock prices.
  • Rivalry or stiff competition: The rival company in that industry also has a major impact on share prices as if the rival company is doing great then it will inversely affect the stock prices.
  • Earnings of the company: Like everybody salutes the rising sun, same way when the company is doing well and is having huge profits, everybody shows their interest in the company and try to take full advantage of the growing company, and suddenly when the profits fall, everybody back off. This has a huge impact on price fluctuation.

What is Nifty?

Everybody must have been puzzled by the word ‘NIFTY’ at some point of time in their life. So, what is Nifty? To put it simply, Nifty is the equity benchmark index of one of the biggest stock exchange of India. Nifty is the index of NSE (National Stock Exchange) which was started to end the monopoly of BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) in the Indian Market. The term Nifty is derived from the word National and Fifty, which means that Nifty only consists of top 50 companies from 12 different sectors. Another word also used for Nifty is ‘NIFTY 50’ as described earlier that it contains only top 50 companies across various dimensions.

Why it is helpful?

The major part of the economy of the country is dependent on the stock exchange and the indexes of the major stock exchanges give exposure to the investor of how good the economy of the country is and how beneficial it is to invest in share market in the prevailing market conditions. As we have understood now that Nifty is computed from the performance of the top stocks of the masters of the industry so it gives us the average value of the top industries. Some other money instruments like mutual funds, uses Nifty as benchmark and the performance of the mutual funds is assessed against the performance of the Nifty. NSE is famous for futures, options and intra-day trading and all of them trades with Nifty as an underlying index. When Nifty shows great progress that indirectly means that our domestic market is doing good and our economy is growing well.

How is nifty calculated?

Well now this looks tricky! This must be your expression but it isn’t that tricky. Nifty is calculated by using the market capitalization weighted method as per which weights are assigned as per the size of the company, larger the size, larger the weightage. This is why the larger stocks would make more difference than the smaller ones in the market. Two universal points while calculating Nifty is: The base year is taken as 1995 and the base value is set to 1000.

Mathematical formulas for calculation are:

Market Capitalization = Shares outstanding * Market Price per Share Free Float Market Capitalization = Shares outstanding * Price * IWF (Investible Weight Factor) Index Value = Current Market Value / Base Market Capital * Base Index Value (1000)

Sectoral Indices

  • • Sectoral Indices means a shared platform to differentiate between shares. This is a good technique of distinguishing of different types of stocks among various sectors. As we have learnt that we have as many as 12 sectors and 50 companies, so in order to differentiate among the shares we use Sectoral indices to make wise and informed choices about which company we are looking to invest in.
  • NIFTY Auto Index
  • NIFTY Bank Index
  • NIFTY Financial Services Index
  • NIFTY FMCG Index
  • NIFTY Media Index
  • NIFTY Metal Index
  • NIFTY Pharma Index
  • NIFTY Private Bank Index
  • NIFTY PSU Bank Index
  • NIFTY Realty Index

How to Make Money in the Stock Market?

Well there is no hard and fast rule to make money in stock exchange. A good research, calculated risk and confidence in your investment can bring you a fortune. Many experienced players of stock exchange have played with different portfolios and investments and all boiled down to few key points to make it large in the stock exchange because everybody has this question after spending few time in Stock exchange that Have I made it large!?

Long term

A diamond is forever! Cool idea, let’s try this with shares but for some time less than forever because not every share is going to gain value every day. There are some stocks which might not have any prominent value at the time of buying but gains huge confidence over the time and thus some stocks are not meant for intra-day or short term but shall be held for long term. New emerging companies initially do not have much confidence of the investors but as soon as they start growing they gain confidence of the investors and their share price shoots up. Experienced players of the stock market are well versed with this research and can identify easily that which company has the potential to grow, and thus they make huge profits out of their investments.


Compounding is said to be the 8th wonder of the world. As when you are investing in any bank’s FD or bonds then you are expecting simple interest on your sum invested but when you enter the stock market and invest in stocks then your sum money will grow exponentially. The interest rates are compounded in case of returns from stock market which is considered a better investment decision than investing in bonds. Though bonds and FD’s are safe investment but Stocks fetches much higher return on investment and this calculated risk is worth taking.


We have seen many big companies, coming back after having a disastrous fall. Though this come back might take decades or two sometimes in the process but companies with skilled professionals and the will to come back, surely makes a comeback and recovers all the money of the investors. Your shares value might have dropped from lakhs to hundreds but if the company is promising and dedicated then your money is destined to recover and sometimes also fetch huge profit. Patience is the key in stock exchange. Who knows that the shares you just gave up brought fortune to somebody else because they stayed stuck to it.

Value investing

Over the time, top professionals have developed various strategies to gain the most from the stock market and value investing is one among those. Value Investing is a universal concept adopted across all stock markets for gaining huge wealth. It is an investment strategy that seeks to buy stocks of companies that have been undervalued by the market. The basic idea of this investment strategy is buying stocks at less than their intrinsic value as it generally involves buying securities whose shares appear under-priced. It focuses on the business and its fundamentals rather than external influences on the stock’s price. This strategy involves a well researched process where the investor puts all his confidence in a company’s strength and wait for the company to grow which will bring him huge profit.

  • Sectoral Indices means a shared platform to differentiate between shares. This is a good technique of distinguishing of different types of stocks among various sectors. As we have learnt that we have as many as 12 sectors and 50 companies, so in order to differentiate among the shares we use Sectoral indices to make wise and informed choices about which company we are looking to invest in.
  • NIFTY Auto Index
  • NIFTY Bank Index
  • NIFTY Financial Services Index
  • NIFTY FMCG Index
  • NIFTY Media Index
  • NIFTY Metal Index
  • NIFTY Pharma Index
  • NIFTY Private Bank Index
  • NIFTY PSU Bank Index
  • NIFTY Realty Index

What is Value Investing?

Now this is a new technique for the beginners who are just entering the stock exchange. There is an ever going learning in the stock exchange even if you have spent all your life in the stock market, You are always a learner in stock market as every now and then you come across with few dilemmas which you haven’t came across all your life. To tackle the problem of lower gains from the stocks, many processionals came up with this technique of value investing, where you invest in a company in its early stage and then wait for your returns.

“Price is what you pay. Value is what you get.” said Warren Buffet. Just like these great words, this great man has been a firm believer of this technique and made everybody believe that this way of investing is possible. Value investing is a technique where an investor, invests in a busy in its early phase and then wait for the return. The main idea behind this is the investment in stocks which are undervalued or are valued less than their actual intrinsic value, which leaves scope for profit. Many stocks are under-valued and they need to be tapped and cashed in to make huge gains.

The break down

In value investing, the goal is to tap in the undervalued stock that comes in an irrational manner to the investor and the investor seeks to gain profit from this irrational investments. This is a very subjective and selective process as two different investors can come to two different views regarding the same stock. There are two ways by which an investor can tap in these irrational stocks, either by selecting stocks with lower than average price to book ratio and lower than average price to earnings ratio with higher dividend returns. The difference between both will be the profit to the investor. Another concept to clear further doubts will be to consider the margin of safety to come to the intrinsic value of the stock. In total the inherent or the intrinsic value is required of the shares to estimate which is a valued investment.

How stocks become undervalued?

Also known as the unglamorous stocks, the stocks that are undervalued or who are valued much lower than what they should have valued are known as Undervalued stocks. In the Modern Era of Amazon and Flipkart, we can call these stocks as best deals where we get more than what we have paid for. Generally, the stocks are under-valued due to the following reasons:

  • The concerned industry is very poorly managed and that left no space for one specific business to shine in. Businesses in this industry are just fitting in poorly and leave no space to stand out.
  • The company may be emerging from bankruptcy and the market is failing to recognize the potential of that company.
  • There may be some short term crises for a shorter time span which downgraded the value of shares but the potential of the company is still intact.
  • Sometimes, the demographic location plays an important role; a high potential company sitting at the remote locations might not get trust from the masses and stays in the dark.

What is Technical Analysis?

What may appear to be complicated on the surface, usually boils down to the basics! Whatever involves Math usually looks ugly to us but we cannot deny the fact that a little understanding of mathematics is of great importance in stock market. The stock market is so complicated to understand at times that you get disinterested to such an extent that either you get lost learning deep in the market or just pulls off the plug once and for all. Whichever category you belong to, we have just the right guidance for you if you are trying to understand the technical analysis of stock market.

What is technical analysis?

The complication of stock market boils down to simple demand and supply factor to understand the direction of the trend. Technical analysis is the study of the statistical and historical data of the market including the price and the volume. This is basically the job of the technical analyst to study the economic and the market behavior of the market to make future predictions of the stocks. So we can conclude that the basic study of chart pattern and trends of the stock prices is known as technical analysis. Do we need to do it? Not necessary but who would say no to money if it can be easily earned with basic study of patterns and trends.

The breakdown

The technical analysis is in simple words, the study of the charts, patterns and trends that has been going in the market about the stocks. This process of technical analysis is not a new process but a traditional practice performed since ages, it’s just we have named it something now. We have been looking at the trends of the winning and losing of a particular team in various sports and pick our favorite ones, or the speculations we used to make in our junior class on result’s day about who is going to come first based totally on their previous records. These were just few basic examples of the technical analysis and how we have been using it all the while. Now, using technical analysis in stock market needs some basic understanding of few concepts of economic and behavioral science to understand the ongoing trend in the market. Now this looks like a calk walk, isn’t it?


To be honest, money is the greatest incentive of this analysis and everything boils down to money. The technical analysis can be of great help if done correctly and it will be directly reflected on your financial health. Few points are discussed below to understand the importance of technical analysis:

1. Calculated speculation: A well-researched speculation is better than just a random blunder in the stock exchange. With technical analysis, you know the direction of the stocks, where they are heading towards and you know what might happen. Technical analysis gives you an edge while making speculation; in short you are making a calculative speculation which will increase your probability of making gains in the stock market.

2. Early signs of upcoming danger: When you are constantly using the technical analysis in the stock market, you realize certain opportunities and dangers due to the constant uptrend or downtrend of a particular stock and this gives you an opportunity to pull off the plug before a danger strikes or cash in before a jackpot is about to happen.

3. Short-term opportunities: While on a constant scanning of the stock market you sometimes sees an opportunity like a particular company is selling a major part of its assets or purchasing some which might have a huge short-term impact on the prices of the stock so technical analysis also helps in identifying short-term opportunities.

Tools of Technical Analysis

Stock market is a tricky place and if someone has a genuine interest in it to make money then along with the basic knowledge of stock market, one needs to be adaptable with various tools too. If you are interested in stock market and want to play it like a pro then here are some must use tools that will increase your chances at making a more accurate estimate of the future values of the shares:-

Excel Experts

The most simple and easy to use tool to understand the trend in the stock market is the Microsoft Excel. You can simply copy the market price of the particular shares of a month and check the trend if the price is expected to rise or fall in the future. The trend of the average prices gives a clear understanding of the prices and their most likely behavior in the future.

Multiple charts

There are line charts, candle stick charts and various other charts to understand the technical analysis of the stock market. Every chart displays some value and some trend and those trends help us in predicting whether the market is going downtrend or uptrend. The information of any stock can be plotted in a chart to study the average change in the price of the shares to get a better idea about the future value of that particular stock.

MACD (Moving average convergence and divergence)

This is a very simple and the most effective tool. You just need to plot MACD points in the graph and check where the two lines are meeting. There are 2 lines, one is a fast line and other is the slow line. So, when the fast line crosses the slow line, it’s a buying signal and if the slow line crosses the fast line then it is a selling signal.

RSI (Relative strength index)

RSI works on the basic principles of magnitude of recent gains and losses to see if the assets are oversold or overbought. To make the study easy, they plots the RSI on the scale of 0-100, where if it is above 70 then it is overbought and if it is below 30 then it is oversold. By understanding this you can estimate the appropriate time to invest or disinvest in the market.

Online software

There are various online portals where you can simply stay updated every minute and follow the trend. These online portals not only provide you with the live updates but they also provide expert opinions and tech support on whether a particular share is going to rise or fall. This is a simple model of binary option where you place your bets on the stocks, whether they will gain or lose value in the next minute. Technical analysis is the base for binary option and various other portals. Google Finance Charts also serves the purpose as they keep us updated with the trend every minute and provide better indication of uptrend and downtrend.

Support and resistance

You must have got an idea about from the names that one thing is positive and other may be negative. The support and resistance are placed on the higher and the lower caps. In case the actual price crosses any of the caps then it will indicate either an upward or a downward. In case there is an upward trend then wait until it gets constant then sell your shares and if it is falling down then wait when it crosses the cap and then chip and invest in the shares.

Technical Analysis vs. Fundamental Analysis

Technical analysis and fundamental analysis are the two schools of thought that are used to make predictions about the future value of the shares. These two techniques are very different from each other, while one is more facts driven and complex, on the other hand, the other is less fact-driven, easy to use for the beginners but offers less accuracy. Enough of creating suspense now, let’s understand about each of these methods and how they are different from each other.


Fundamental analysis is a method of evaluating a security to find out its intrinsic value by examining various factors like economic, financial and other qualitative and quantitative factors. It deals with the long term goals and low risk securities. On the other hand, Technical analysis is an analysis for forecasting the direction of the prices through the study of past market data, price and volume to extract the trend. It is a short-term, quick decision making who aims to invest high frequency.

Methodology & the basic difference

The technical analysis uses charts and tables to achieve their goal of extracting trends from the data while the fundamental analysis uses the financial statements of the company to check the intrinsic value of the company. Both works on different techniques and aims for different goals. The reason behind the examining of company’s financial statements in fundamental analysis is that it favors the intrinsic value of the company and if the stock price is valued below the company’s intrinsic value then only it is considered as a good investment while on the other hand there is no use of financial statements in technical analysis instead only stock prices are studied as they already contains all the relevant facts. The Fundamental analysis is generally used for long term while the technical analysis is considered best for intra-day and short-term investments. Even the goals of both the houses are very different, on one hand the technical analysis aims for shorter goals and identify many short-term and medium-term trades to flip a stock quickly and on the other hand the fundamental analysis looks to invest in the stocks of the company for a long-term prospect.

Conclusion and can they co-exist?

Though, these two approaches are totally different from each other to analyze the securities and follow opposing techniques to achieve their goals but a blend of both of the approaches is the best mix when it comes to investing or trading in stock exchange. People have been benefitted from this mix, as this serves as a complete purpose packed approach to trade and invest both in long and short term securities. A mix of both the techniques shall be used to predict the future values of the stocks to gain the maximum profits.

Pros and Cons of Fundamental and Technical Analysis

Fundamental analysis and Technical analysis are the two famous schools of thoughts when it comes to analyzing the stock market to predict the future valuation of the stocks. You must have heard a lot about both of these techniques and their various implications but let’s discuss about the pros and cons of both of these techniques and also what they actually mean.

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is the art of evaluating the intrinsic value of the stock to find the long-term investing opportunities. It relies majorly on the financial statements of the company like balance sheet, profit and loss statement and cash-flow statement. The aim is to check whether the stocks are valued below the intrinsic value of the company or not.

Every approach has its pros and cons, so here we discuss the pros and cons of the fundamental analysis:


1. This process is very easy-to-use and most of us will agree with this that gathering data from the financial statements is much more convenient.

2. A common practice of all the investors is to place their bet on the company with good financial health.


1. For sure this is a lengthy and time-taking process. This process involves a lot of digging of the financial statements of the company which makes it a lengthy and tiresome process.

2. Making predictions for long-term investments on the basis of the historical or the past records of the company is not always considered a valid explanation.

3. Demand and supply are the deciding factors for the valuation and prediction of stock prices so financial statements seem to be irrelevant in this case.

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the process of analyzing the charts of the stock prices to identify the trend of the stocks and predict the future valuation of the stock. The goal is to understand the demand and supply for a particular stock and to understand in which direction the stock is going in.


1. The first and foremost is that it rationalizes the price you are paying for. You have a track of the stocks you have invested in.

2. The price and volume also plays a crucial role in the prediction of the future value of the shares and the on-going trend.

3. Precision is the outcome of this skill based technique. Usually this technique lands you with near to accurate results.


1. It is a cumbersome process as it involves a lot of tracking and calculation of the market price of the stock to find the trend.

2. As already said, it takes skills and a lot of experience to estimate the trends and the patterns.

3. Apart from the skills and proficiencies required for this method, this method also demands previous knowledge of the company as an exception because sometimes a company with bad shares valuation

Diversification of the Investment and its Pros and Cons

What is the first emotion that comes along with the word Stock Exchange? Loss, risk, fear, disappointment etc. Yes, we know you and we can understand all your insecurities. But imagine if you were out on a shopping then what will you prefer a basket of various fruits or a basket of apples? Obviously if you can get diverse quality in the same amount then that is going to be our preference. In the same way, if we are to invest in the stock market then rather the gaining profit from only one type of stock, we shall aim to make a sweet little basket of different types of securities. This process of sharing the risk among various securities is known as Diversification of Investment.

Why Diversification?

As discussed earlier, Stock Exchange is a risky affair and you need to cautiously invest in the stock market to gain the maximum. In a diversified portfolio, the assets don't correlate with each other, as when one rises the other falls. It lowers the overall risk because, no matter what the economy does, some asset classes will benefit. A basket full of diverse stocks never harms any investment and only enriches the investment. Many investors think they own a well-diversified portfolio because they own a large number of stocks or stock funds across numerous accounts. But upon closer analysis you will find that the investment is concentrated only in one kind of stock and so the risk is not shared which doesn’t fall in accordance with the Diversification.


A diversified portfolio is a big pro in itself as you do not need to depend on only one kind of investment to make gains. So the first benefit of diversifying is that it helps level out volatility and risk. Another strong pro of a diversified portfolio is that you won’t be suffering from losses while a crash down in the domestic market as your investment from the global market will balance the losses. Economic fall or break down doesn’t necessarily mean there’s no economic boom in some other country. Your basket of investment will compensate for the foul products.


The cons or the disadvantages of a diversified has been overlooked since so long but there is a downside too to this kind of investment. Firstly you will be getting only average returns as if one stock is incurring losses and others are fetching profits, the overall will leave a null effect or a minimal effect at times. You need to be really lucky or extremely skilled to make huge gains from a diversified portfolio. Also sometimes, the investor, just for the sake of investing or diversifying, invests in any stock which is little known to him which may have an adverse effect on his portfolio. This, for the sake of diversifying attitude usually results in average to no profits in a diversified portfolio.

What is Value Investing?

Value investing has taken various forms since its inception. Value investing is an investment arrangement which involves the buying of stocks that appears to be under-valued in the market. Top professionals in the market like Warren Buffet, argues that Value investing is one of the best technique while investing in the stock exchange as it focuses on the intrinsic value of the company and not on any other irrelevant factor. To put it simply, value investing is like buying an asset that has a higher value than the price you are paying for and will continue to gain value with time to make you wealthier without even putting extra time and effort. After all a good investment is always about getting more than what you paid for in the first place with just a smart investing decision.

How to pick undervalued stocks?

To be honest, value is more art than science. Investment is not a sure-shot technique to get you quick rich but a slow, steady and smart process where you screen, analyze and investigate all the available stocks that fits your criteria. While picking up the undervalued stocks, you need to use an unique technique of creating a funnel. Funnel, what? Wait. Let us explain. You need to first pick up the best undervalued stocks whose intrinsic value are high and fit your criteria, once you are done with the initial screening then start analyzing all those stocks, those stocks may be from various industries so you need to check which stock is best working in their specific industry. Now when you are done with narrowing it down, this phase will need a bit of technical knowledge, you will be required to use all the financial ratios on the selected companies balance sheet and check which one stand outs the most and then you will end up with a very few stocks in your hand. So, let’s say, you have already filtered 100 stocks and now you are down to 5, now this is up to your personal choice and previous experience in which stock you shall invest in.

Below are some points you need to keep in mind while picking the undervalued stocks:

1. Understand the mechanism as to why they became undervalued: Yes, every investment begins with this basic question of why to invest and if you know where to invest then why that specific key area to invest. You need to understand what makes a stock undervalued and what will you be getting from investment made in the under-valued stocks. Sometimes the stocks become under-valued due to poor industry management of that particular company, market fluctuations, market expectations and market crashes. Some stocks are also under-valued due to lack of knowledge and understanding of the business of that particular company.

2. Keep a track of the insiders of your favorites: The insiders or the top management of the company which are directly linked with the important decisions of the company might make some personal gains from a particular unannounced decision of the company so you also need to keep a track of the top level management of the narrowed down companies that you wished to invest in.

3. Choose business that makes sense to you: : This shall be the first ticked box while getting started with your investing ventures. You got to have a good understanding of the industries in which you are planning to invest in. There are various jargons and complicated concepts flowing around in all the industries and if you are interested in a specific company then it will give you an edge over others because others won’t be able to absorb all the knowledge about their stocks and you will be able to make a good, refined and well-researched investment decision.

4. Know the formulas: There are so many formulas to extract various information. Price-to-earnings ratio, price-to book ratio, return on equity, debt to equity ratio and current ratio are the few among various ratios to come down to the intrinsic value of the shares and to estimate the future value of the shares.

5. Think beyond: Though, the calculations and formulas are important but there are some external factors that makes some stocks under-valued too. Sometimes, due to political changes or some natural disaster, a company whose business was running averagely suddenly catches a pace and this adds a surprise element to picking up the under-valued stocks.

6. Patience is the key: Patience plays a key role in the stock market. Sometimes, inflation and other factors hitting the economy upsets the stock exchange and the under-valued stocks takes time to flourish.

Pros and Cons


1. Low entry Price: : The under-valued stocks are usually low priced and that makes it easy and affordable for the potential investors to chip and enter the stock market.

2. Attractive rewards: The under-valued stocks are known to provide good gains as they are already priced below their value and while selling, you will be getting the difference between the discounted price and the market price of that time.

3. Qualitative over quantity: Quality is the focus when it comes to under-valued stocks. With a good research you will be getting good profits without putting on huge stack of money on diverse portfolio.


1. Technical aspect: Sometimes it gets really difficult to spot the key players in the market. To identify the under-valued stocks you need to carry out various research and formulas which in the beginning gets really difficult.

2. Lengthy time period: The holding period of these under-valued stocks are very long as the stocks will take time to perform well in the market and to cross their original worth first and then after the break-even they will fetch some profit. Your money gets stuck for a good long time.

3. Risk taking: This is a game of risk taking. In the stock market when everybody are focusing on the highly priced and good growing stocks, you are going against the wave and focusing on the under-valued stocks. This brings a big risk and sometimes due to lack of accuracy and ill-researched investment you may suffer big losses.

Buyback of Shares

Buy-back of shares is a corporate decision of the company for its financial engineering. In simple words the company has the money and the will to buy back their own shares from the shareholders that they previously issued at a higher price. When the companies buy-back then the number of their shares out-standing in the market reduces. A buy-back allows the company to invest in themselves.


If you can, own it back, what belongs to you. SIMPLE! The most obvious reason of buy back is to get back your shares from the market to increase your own share base in the company. Other relevant reasons to buy back:

1. The unused cash lying in the company’s account is costly as it can be used or invested in various other money making projects.

2. It is also used as a defense strategy, as many companies’ tries to take over the competitor company by purchasing their major stocks. So it’s always better to purchase your shares from the market before anybody tries to make the situation hostile and forceful for you.

3. Buy backs also gives an excellent exit route to the existing share holders mostly in the situations when the shares are under-valued or poorly traded in the market.

Aspect and funding

Every business boils down to one thing, PROFIT! Profit is the factor that highly motivates a business to grow and flourish in the market. If there’s no money inflow then the business might feel unmotivated and dull. The success of the business is more dependent on the efficient utilization of funds and resources. Here are few ways that the company can use to buy back its own shares from the market:

. No.1 has to be the money that is lying around everywhere (sufficient cash position)

2. The cash can also be raised by issuing the fixed deposits

3. Business always has an option of selling the temporary investments and assets with the least possible loss.

Pros and Cons


1. As discussed earlier, buy-backs safeguards the company from unwelcomed takeover bids.

2. A strong reflection of the company. As when a company decides to buy back its own shares from the market that means the company is having efficient resources for the buy back and the financial health of the company is good.

3. It also improves the earning per share of their stock. When the surplus stock goes beyond an optimal ratio which was issued in the market then it needs to be plugged out from the market. This plug out improves the earning per share in the market.


1. In order to buy back the shares of the company, the company might divert away the funds from their productive investments, hence decreasing their overall profit.

2. The insiders of the company may also use buy back for their personal gains.

3. The optimal ratio of debt to equity may get disturbed because of the buy-back. Sometimes, just for the sake of investing their unused cash, the company buy backs their shares which shake up their debt-equity ratio.

Stock Split

A famous practice in the public ltd. companies, a stock split is a corporate decision where the company decides to split the existing shares into multiple shares to boost the liquidity of shares. Although the number of outstanding shares of the company increases but there is no effect on the overall value of the shares. In short the no. of shares will get multiplied by a specified number but over all there will be no change in the total value of the shareholders, just a little liquidation of shareholders.

Why stock split?

Yes, why? This is a practice followed by various top CEOs for a simple reason to lower the value of their shares as in a unit share. The price of the share gets split into half or even lower as per the scheme and then this lowered per share price promotes more investment from the shareholders because an average shareholder might not show interest in a high valued share but will definitely show interest in a mid or low valued good stock of shares. A stock split also increases number of shares in the market which means more opportunity for investors in the market.

How it is different from Bonus issue of shares?

When a company has a huge reserve underlying in their balance sheet, they issues bonus shares to their existing shareholders free of cost where as when the company decides to split their existing shares in half or less it is known as stock split. In bonus issue there is an increase in the value of the shares whereas in stock slit there is no increase in the value of the shares only an increase in shareholders.

Any effect on the investor?

The public ltd. company uses this practice of splitting their shares when the prices of their shares get out of the pocket of the potential investors. There are few pros and cons of this stock-split as discussed below:


1. The investors gets higher prices for the shares that they have acquired long ago.

2. The potential investors of the company also gains confidence because a stock split reflects on various points like the company must be expanding, the company must be doing really good as they are splitting their shares in the long run. It leaves a room for positive speculation.

3. A stock split is any day a good indicator for the investors because a stock split clearly indicates that the prices of the shares of the company are increasing and the company is doing.

But there must be some downsides too.


1. There is a standard set in the stock market, which a public ltd company has to match every time and in case the price of the shares of the company falls down below the standard then the company stands a chance to get delisted from the stock exchange which will harm the reputation of the company.

2. An open opportunity calls both good and unwanted investors. In the process of splitting the shares, many unwanted investors also invests in the shares due to lucrative pricing with no intention to retain the shares, but just for the sake of experimenting and influencing the market.

3. Sometimes stock splits may reflect that the shares are less valuable now and the company is losing their credibility in the market due to which many investors start disinvesting from the shares of the company.

Bonus Shares

Your next shares are on the house! Yes, you heard it right. Bonus shares are the shares that are issued to the existing shareholders of the company as a gift or bonus for the loyalty of their shareholders. Sometimes, when the company has huge amount in their reserves or the company didn’t made any profit and is unable to pay the dividends to its share holders then the company issues the bonus shares to its existing share holders. Bonus shares are not issued to the potential share holders but only as a gift or bonus to the existing share holders as a gratitude for their blood and sweat and confidence in their company. Usually bonus shares are issued as 1 for every 3 or every 5 shares held by the shareholder and later on they will be receiving normal dividends as to what they were receiving on their previously issued shares.

Are they really free of cost? Still somebody must be paying for it?

Technically you are right, somebody is paying for it, and that somebody is the company. Take this lesson for life; there is never a free lunch. Same way, the bonus shares are not free of cost to the company or the investors, the cost of bonus issue is capitalized from the reserves of the company. Usually a part of the profit which was required to be distributed among the shareholders is retained as reserves in the company and is being carried forward to subsequent years. When the reserve adds up to a huge sum which was simply underlying in the balance sheet and was being wasted then the company announces to capitalize those reserves and issues bonus shares. The bonus issue is made when the company wants it and in the process it simply writes off the reserves of the company to issue the bonus shares to its shareholders. So the bill is on the company’s profit which indirectly affects the shareholders.

What’s in it for the company?

Well, there is nothing tangible for the company but the good Karma will definitely serve the company good. There are various intangible advantages to the company which will help the company in the long run. The first advantage is that it will improve the reputation of the company, the word of mouth will spread that the company is issuing the bonus shares to its share holders which will promote confidence in the existing shareholders mind and also the other potential investors will gain confidence in the company. Also there has been a general observation that the price of the stocks of the company rises after a bonus issue. Though this observation has been controversial and no firm substance has been found but still there is a general tendency that the price of the stock rises after a bonus issue which in turn reflects a healthy image of the company in the stock market.


In the field of finance, compounding is known as the source of generating earnings and these earnings are later reinvested to produce their own earnings. Compounding is just another form of producing earnings from earlier earnings. Its practical usage is not limited to only specific sector but it is applied in almost all the commercial sectors.

It is also known as compounding interest due to the earnings which are generated monthly, quarterly or semi-annually. Its process is like that of a continuous compounding in which any interest earned immediately begins earning another interest. The greatest scientist Albert Einstein once said that compounding is the greatest mathematical discovery of all the times. Moreover from interest on bank loans to company’s debts, compounding interest is applied everywhere.

The biggest advantage of compounding is that it can convert the working money of any person into a strong income generating tool. It is a type of process through which anyone can earn profits in form of interest from reinvested earnings. It is the amalgamation of reinvestment of earnings and time. It is believed that those set of persons who are able to afford more time to their investments are able to regenerate more potential income.

In other words, compounding increases the growth of working money by maximising the earning potential of investments.

Compounding frequency is another constituent of compound interest in which the repetitive frequency about the accumulated interest is calculated. The compounding’s effect depends upon the nominal interest rate which is applied and on compounded frequency interest.

For comparing the interest-bearing financial instruments, financial analyst use the approach of nominal interest rate and the compounding frequency rate. From the outlook of many financial experts, nominal interest rate cannot be directly compared with different compounding frequencies. The procedure of compounding interest also assist a consumer in comparing retail products more fairly. The interest is also considered as annual percentage rate (APR), annual equivalent rate (AER), effective interest rate and other terms.

How is interest compounded?

The first and foremost thing for investors is to understand the time value of money and in knowing how the exponential growth created by compounding can optimize their income and wealth allocation. The principle of interest works on one formula that a dollar today is worth more than a dollar in the future.

Time Value of Money

Understanding the time value of money and the exponential growth created by compounding is essential for investors looking to optimize their income and wealth allocation. This entire concept is known as the time value of money and discounted cash flow analysis (DCF) is just another component of it.

Even the investors who can purchase zero-coupon bond are also able to experience compounding interest. In the times of today where fluctuations in the market are high, many underdeveloped nations have been able to flourish because of the inclusion of compounding techniques in their business. Several compounding techniques including discounting cash flow analysis have helped many money lenders as well as investors to gain better profits.

At last, compounding has aided many banks, finance institutions facing financial crises.

Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is a method known for assessing the intrinsic value, economic, financial, qualitative and quantitative factors associated with the bond. It is a kind of study that analysis the value of security by determining its macro-economic and micro-economic factors. It is the most appropriate method because it analyses by blending the economic conditions of an organisation with its financial conditions. It helps an investor in comparing the current price of any security as it offers the accurate quantitative value of any asset. Moreover it also eradicates the problem of over-pricing of shares.

Fundamental analysis is a quite beneficial method for the underlying companies because it determines the financial health by obliterating the difficulties which were coming in its working. Its basic purpose is to identify those sets of companies which are fundamentally strong or those which are weak. Investors invest in the strong companies by having the belief that their proportionate amount of shares’ price will rise in the near future. While in case of short companies, they sell their shares owing to the fact that the value of these shares might fall in coming times. This method is also known by the name of security analysis because it predicts the path of prices through the study of historical data like price and volume.

The major role of fundamental analysis in a company is to investigate into the financial statements. It is also referred as qualitative analysis because it consist of revenue, expenses, assets, liabilities and other financial aspects of a company. Fundamental analysts are able to get the detailed information about the company’s future performance.

How financial analysis is executed?

Fundamental analysis includes economic, industry and company analysis. These three analysis also determine the intrinsic value of market shares.

The buyer is recommended to buy the share if its intrinsic value is higher than the market price. These analysis also helps the buyer to sell the shares if its value is less than the market price.

The process of fundamental analysis requires real, public data is estimating the value of a security. Most of the fundamental analyst use this method to evaluate the stocks. It is not only beneficial to analyst but also benefits the investors by letting them know the exact price value of the share. Fundamental analysis also allows the investor to know about the bond issuer like possible changes in credit ratings.

Top down and bottom up approaches

Top down or bottom-up approach is followed by the investors while using the fundamental analysis. The investor who thinks of top-down investing starts his/her analysis with global economics that includes both international and national economic indicators. GDP growth rates, inflation, interest rates, exchange rates, productivity and energy prices are also included in the top-down investment. Investors in this segment narrow their search to regional analysis of overall sales, price levels and foreign competition.

Whereas the investor who is investing in bottom-up investment starts with specific businesses and proceeds in opposite to the top down approach. Thus the usage of financial analysis has brought more transparency in the financial sector by eradicating the possible chances of overpricing of shares.

Financial Analysis Model

For analysing the financial health of a company, a financial analyst analysis the financial statement that consist of financial ratios. Financial statements give detailed information about paid dividends, operating cash flow, new equity shares and capital financing.

The valuation models used in the process of financial analysis determine the growth rates (income and cash) and risk levels. For calculating the present value of the dividends that can be received by the investor, a financial analyst uses the model of discounted cash flow. Even the debt that is acquired by the company is also calculated in determining its financial status. The company’s debt is also assessed by using the debt-to-equity ratio and current asset to liability ratio.

Price-to-earnings ratio is the simple common model that gives an understanding of perpetual annuity (time-value of money) to a financial analyst. It is also called as the discount rate that is accurate for analysing the risk of business.

PEG ratio is also giving unified growth estimates whose validity depends on the growth which is determined by the financial analyst. For attributing the expected changes in growth from current P/E, IGAR model’s help is required. These financial business models are also useful in presenting the quantitative value of stock’s historical growth rates in respect to comparison index.

Gone are the days when subjective interpretation of the fundamental data used to take place in companies. With advancement in technology, computer modelling of stock prices has replaced the antiquated systems of maintaining the financial balance sheets.

Benefits of Financial Analysis

The usage of financial analysis help the company’s shareholders to get an insight about its decisions, policies and turnover. More or less, it also informs the investor about company’s total net worth. It represents the annual report of a company that consist of financial highlight, management discussion and analysis, corporate information and report on corporate governance.

Moreover it also gives a brief information about balance sheet which will consist of profit and loss statements, equity research along with business transaction details of the company.

Those set of people who are thinking of investing in the long-term projects may get benefitted from taking the help of financial analyst who can predict and tell them the right to hold the shares or sell them.

The usage of financial analysis has helped the Indian economy to get stabilized by removing the difficulties. In recent years, the usage of newly devised financial models has replaced the earlier problems like overpricing of shares and enhanced the transparency in several financial companies.


In the year 1988, the government of India established a non-statutory regulatory body known by the name of The Securities and Exchange Board of India. But in the year of 1992 on January 30 it was given the statutory powers when the Parliament of India passed Securities and Exchange Board of India Act. Headquartered in Mumbai at the business district of Bandra Kurla Complex. Over the years its branches have been spread to many different cities like New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai and Ahmedabad. Whereas it’s small branch offices are located in Bangalore, Jaipur, Guwahati, Patna, Kochi and Chandigarh.

The organisation is run mainly by its own members which consist of the chairman who gets elected by the President of India. It also consist of two officers from the Union Finance Ministry, one person from the Reserve Bank of India and five persons who get elected by the Parliament.

The main objective of SEBI is to protect the interest of investors in securities and regulating the market conditions that can favour the concerned people. According to the terms of its contracts its responsibility lies in safeguarding the interests of three main groups like issuers of securities, investors and market intermediaries. The organisation is known for holding judicial powers as it drafts regulations and statues in its legislative capacity. It is also known for conducting investigation and enforcement action within its administrative powers.

The statutorily regulated body of India (SEBI) is also criticised by many people because it inner-working is shielded from direct accountability to the public. Only Securities Appellate Tribunal is one such organisation that keeps a check on its power. Its panel consist of three judges who can make a direct appeal to the people of India.

Remember the time of Great Recession of 2008 and the biggest scam held by the company naming Satyam Fiasco. It was only the SEBI that took regulatory steps in mitigating the effects of these problems by passing some concrete steps to make sure that these problems do not occur again. Thus, this was the probably most extreme step of SEBI in stabilising the economy of India.

The powers of SEBI is not only limited to one but it has many starting from the authority of intervene in inside trading to imposing of monetary penalties.

Power relating to market-intermediaries

During the time of inspection and scrutiny, it can ask for information related to the business transaction from the stock exchanges and intermediaries.

Power to Impose Monetary Penalties

In case of any kind of violation made by the capital market intermediaries or other participants, it can impose monetary penalties on them.

Power to issue certain guidelines

As the rules of SEBI has strictly stated that it works in safeguarding the interests of investors which implies that it can issue certain guidelines to intermediaries on which they need to work. It can also regulate the functions of merchant bankers or insider trading.

The working of this organisation has not only created a uniformity in Indian market but has also created the transparency in the organisation.

Diversification of Investment

In the field of finance, diversification is considered as the process in which allocated capital reduces the risk to any asset or financial bond. The main aim of diversification is to reduce the risk or instability occurring in variety of assets. In case when the prices of asset do not change do not change simultaneously then a diversified portfolio might be created that will be having less variance as compared to the weighted average variance of its constituent assets. Hedging is also one type of diversification.

What is diversified portfolio?

Diversification in terms of investment means to create a portfolio that consist of numerous investments for reducing the order of risk. For an assumption if an investment contains only a stock issued by a single company then there are chances that it may suffers a downfall which may lead also lead an investor’s sustainable portfolio to get declined. During this case, a financial analyst advises an investor to split his investments between the stocks from two different companies so that it reduces the potential risk of the portfolio.

How to reduce risk in portfolio?

The second way through which an investor can reduce his/her portfolio risk is by including bond and cash. It is because of the fact that cash is considered as short term reserve and it is observed that most of the investors develop an asset allocation strategy for their portfolios which is mainly based on the use of stocks and bonds. Many financial experts have also concluded in their research that people who invest money in cash or short term securities are able to reap the fruits of success in long term. This is because cash can be utilised during the case of emergency whereas short time money market securities can be easily liquidated. Asset allocation and diversification are the two associated concepts through which a diversified portfolio is created. An aggressive investor may think of investing (80%) in stocks and (20%) in bonds. Whereas a conservative investor may think of investing (20%) in stocks and (80%) in bonds.

Irrespective of whether the investor follows aggressive or conservative approach, he/she needs to approach the asset allocation method that can reduce the risk at the time of selecting a certain amount of stocks and bonds. This is the best way of creating a balanced portfolio. The difference between certain amount of stocks and bonds in any diversified portfolio is designed for creating a specific risk-reward ratio that offers a guaranteed rate of return on investment to investors. In the field of commerce, there is saying that greater the risk an investor takes, the higher are the chances of getting good returns.

In the times of today when no one can anticipate the coming of recession or market fluctuation, diversification is one such process which can lead you to choose the better side. By using the help of diversified portfolio, investors come to know about company’s working and financial status. Thus, it allows them to invest money as per their needs and requirements.


Futures are determined as the financial contracts that compels a buyer to purchase an asset or a seller to sell an asset. Over here, the financial asset can be related to physical commodity or can be a financial instrument whose price is determined at the future price. The quality and quantity of any underlying asset is also determined by future contracts. These contracts are also considered consistent in facilitating trade on the basis of future contracts. It is said that some future contracts are made for the physical delivery of the asset whereas other contracts are settled in cash.

In the year 1972, financial futures contracts were introduced while the currency futures, interest rate futures and stock market futures were introduced after that year. The future contracts for agriculture and natural resources were also negotiated.

The futures markets are branded by its ability to use high leverage which is relative to stock markets. These markets are quite helpful in speculating the price-change of the underlying asset. Let’s take an example of agrarian economy where a corn producer can use futures for securing a certain price and for reducing the risks.

In finance anyone can get confuse over the appropriate usage of options and futures. From the term options it can be said that it grants the right to a buyer to buy or sell the underlying asset at expiration. Whereas the future contracts necessitates a holder to complete the terms and conditions prescribed on his contract. The categories of actual delivery rate of underlying goods that are stated as low in future contracts.

The main use of futures contracts is to lessen the risk of price or exchange rate actions that allows the parties to fix the prices or rates in advance in future transactions. It is proved beneficial to those set of people who are expecting to receive payments in foreign currency in future as they can safeguard their payment against any unfavourable moment which might occur in the currency.

These contracts also provide opportunities to certain set of traders who can predict the rise in price of asset in coming future get the benefits of obtaining good profits.

For minimizing the credit risk, a trader must create a margin of near around (5% to 15%) of the contract value. The approach of margin in futures is quite different from its usage used in equities. . It is considered as good deposit because it covers regular obligations that are required for securing the position. Margins are further classified as clearing, customer and initial margin.

Like clearing margins work as financial safeguards that ensure companies perform on their open futures whereas the initial margin is a contract which is required to initiate a futures position.

A clearing house guarantees to minimise the risks that are borne by traders during the regulated future exchanges. The third party agency enacts the role of a buyer to each seller or seller to each buyer. It allows traders to transact without any thoroughness on their counterparty. For those set of hedgers who have physical ownership of any covered commodity, the margin requirements are waived in futures markets.

How to trade futures?

As we all know the term futures in finance means to obligate a buyer to buy a share. But then the question which comes very often in the mind of any investor is that how he can trade in futures contracts? Trading in future contracts is quite simple just like the process of selling and buying an asset.

For trading in futures contract, an investor selects the asset that he/she wants to trade and does create an initial margin deposit with broker. After this process a trading meeting is organised by broker for a specific asset with the clearing house.

The extensive array of underlying assets, commodities and stock indexes constitute in futures contracts. Due to their active presence in secondary markets, these contracts are considered to be different from other forward contracts.

How trade occurs in futures markets?

Future markets work as the saviour for the companies as well as mid-level business because it safeguard them from instability of price in different securities. It benefits investors or speculators who desire to yield profit from the change in price of an asset.

It is a type of forward contract between a buyer and a seller of an asset. Through this contract, they agree to exchange goods and money at a future date by keeping its price and quantity determined at the time of today.

Ever wondered why futures contracts are preferred more?

With the great fall of depression in India’s economy in 2008 many investors thought of choosing a contract that can protect their money against inflation in commodities. Perhaps this is the reason why many investors, money lenders and beginning entrepreneurs choose the medium of future contracts to survive in the business. Most importantly, it also offers them a standardised, regulated and risk free aspects which makes it grab the attention of every new comer in business.

Another fact which makes it capture the attention of investors is the guarantee given by clearinghouses that futures market will honour their obligations. Thus it is the foremost reason behind it getting the higher preference by many of them.

Futures Trade Settlement

The settlement of futures trade occurs in physical delivery as well as in cash settlement. While dealing with commodities and bonds, physical delivery settlement method is opted by investors. In other words physical delivery implicates the amount specified of underlying asset which needs to be delivered by the seller of the contract to the exchange. Whereas cash payment is made on the basis of underlying reference rate like short term interest rate or the closing value of a stock market.

Do future market help the investors in more than one way?

Yes it do, future markets work as the channel to yield profits for traders and investors due to margin payments. Margin payments is built up of initial, exposure, margin, premium and mark-to-market margin. Its ability in leveraging investments and in increasing returns has made it more prominent among the shareholders.


An option is generally considered as a contract which offers the right to a buyer. But it does give the obligation to buyer to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument which is given at a specified strike price on a specified date. The price at which a derivative can be implemented is called as strike price and it is referred as the price of derivative’s underlying security. In the put option, the strike price is determined at which the option holder can sell the underlying security.

According to some financial experts, the strike price may be in reference to the market price of the underlying security or commodity on the day an option is conceived. An option is fixed at a discount or at a premium rate. It conveys the owner of shares about the proper time of selling the shares or holding them. An options which conveys the owner about the right time to buy a specific share is referred to as call. Whereas the put option is considered as those set of shares which can be sold at a specific price.

Share issue is known as the option which is granted by the seller to a buyer and it is also considered as the part of an employee incentive scheme. Another way can be when a buyer would pay a premium to the seller for an option. When the strike price of an underlying asset is below the market price then a call option is practised. The premium is added to strike price of the asset when it is acquired by a buyer. An option expires when its expiration date gets executed without the option being exercised. The premium is considered as the income to the seller and it is accounted as the capital loss to the buyer.

With the help of counter-transaction or an options exchange, the owner of an option may be eligible to sell it to a third party in any secondary market. The difference between the market price of a stock and strike price of an option can differ and it determines the market price of an American style option. Due to numerous factors like the necessity of an option holder to sell the option before it approaches the expiration date and lack of financial resources to exercise the option can lead to the variation in actual market price of an option. The holders of options are never entitled to any of the rights linked with the underlying asset like voting rights or the right to generate income from the underlying asset like dividend.

For the past many decades options contracts have been known to the world. In the year 1973, The Chicago Board Options Exchange was created. Its administration was built through the help of standardised forms and terms which were passed through a guaranteed clearing house. The financial institution of Chicago has enhanced the two most specific activity areas like in trading and academic interest.

This has further led to the amplification of options in the times of today and all of them are produced through clearing houses which trade them to the buyers in a standardised form. Whereas the counter-options are meant to be bilateral and customised contracts which lie between a buyer and seller. Options are the constituents of extensive set of financial instruments which are known as derivative products or simply called as derivatives.

There are many forms of trading options like exchanged-traded options, stock options, stock options, stock market index options, options on future markets and bear contracts.

Exchange trade options are classified as exchange-traded derivatives. These options consist of standardized contracts and these are settled through the fulfilment which will be guaranteed by the Options Clearing Corporation (OOC). These contracts are standardized and accurate pricing models of them are also available.

How to trade options?

Forms of trading

Options can be traded in more than one way. The ways of trading options include exchange-traded options, stock market index options, bear contract, over the counter options and future contracts.

Exchange Traded-options

Exchanged traded derivatives is another name given to the exchanged traded options. Exchanged traded options consist of standardized contracts which are settled with the help of clearing house and require the fulfilment guaranteed by Options Clearing Corporations. Accurate price models are offered on these contracts because they are standardised.

Stock options

Those set of options which can be sold by one party to another and offer the right to the buyer but do not obligate the person with a right to buy or sell the stock within the specified period of time. American options are the one which can be executed between the date of purchase and the expiration date of the option.

Over the counter options

Those set of options that are not listed on an exchange but can be traded between two trade private parties. Since its terms of (OTC) options are unrestricted therefore it can be individually modified to connect with any need of business. Thus option writer is well-financed institution. Some of the most commonly used option types include interest rate options, currency cross rate options, and options on swaps.

Call Options

These are those set of options which facilitate the buyer with the right to buy an underlying security at the strike price. Moreover the option writer is needed to give the underlying security to the option buyer only when the stock’s market price surpasses the strike price.

It is always believed by an option writer that the prices of underlying stock will drop or remain constant in relation to the option’s strike price until the date of option’s expiration. Thus this is how one can yield the maximum profit. As per the research analysis of many well-known financial analysts, the optimum value of profit that an option writer can earn is determined by the premium he/she received in selling the option. If the buyer’s stock rises above the strike price then the buyer might be able to acquire the stock for a low price and earn few profits by selling it at the current market price. Moreover the option buyer may lose the premium in case when the value of underlying stock falls below the strike on the date of expiration.

Put Option

This is type of option which allows the option buyer the right to sell at strike price. For example, a put option believes that the market price of underlying stock will fall below the specified strike price on the specified date. The option writer’s maximum profit is achieved when his underlying stock’s price remain at the same price or closes above the specified rate. Unlike other options, a put option holder gain benefits from the decrease in underlying stock’s price below the strike price. The put option writer is obligated to earn profit when the underlying stock’s price falls below the strike price. Financial analyst calculate the put option writer’s profit by subtracting current market price along with paid premium from strike price. And then multiplying the entire value by 100.

Types of orders

Orders are generally considered as the instruction that a person needs while buying or selling a share like stock market, bond market and commodity market or even in crypto-currency exchange. These set of instruction are said to be simple or complicated because they can be sent to a broker or trader by market access. Thus some standard instructions are also set for such orders.

For buying or selling an asset in the financial market as per the terms and conditions specified in the instructions is known as the market order. These types of orders are used when certainty of execution is given the priority over the price of execution.

A market order is a buy or sell order to be executed immediately at current market prices. As long as there are willing sellers and buyers, market orders are filled. Market orders are therefore used when certainty of execution is a priority over price of execution. Market order is known for being the simplest of all the different order types. The most adept thing about this order is that it does not allow the prices of the commodity to change early.

Limit Order

It is an order which does not specify the desired price of any commodity. Moreover, it does not guarantee that whether the order will be filled or not. Limit orders are of two types like buy limit order and sell limit order.

Buy order limit- It is a particular type of instruction in which the order is entered at a price below the current market price.

Stop order- It is an order which is used for activating an execution at the time of rise in the prices due to the market level. When this limit is reached then the stop order becomes a market order. Stop order does not predict the actual price that will be received in the form of security. There are two types of orders like buy stop order and sell stop order.

Buy stop order

These are used to limit losses on short stock positions and they are known because their value is always placed above the current market price and get filled only when the price of the commodities rises in the markets.

Sell Stop Order

It is an order which is used for limiting the losses on long stock positions and are always placed below the current market price and get filled only when the prices of markets falls.

It can be concluded that financial orders are very much necessary in determining the market forces of supply and demand. Thus, through the help of these financial orders the work of shareholders have become much easier in buying or selling the financial assets. Those days have gone where an investor needed to worry about his shares when the prices of the commodity gets rises or decreases as per the market condition.

If you are a conservative investor then buying any kind of financial asset as per the guidelines specified in different types of orders can be said to be beneficial.

Integration of global stock markets

What is financial integration?

After the globalisation of Indian markets after 1990’s national stock markets have arisen as the chief channel for financial amalgamation of upcoming market economies and globalisation. Over the years rapid increase in the economy has also led to the increase in IT sector. The cross border of flexibility of private capital inflows because of investors want of better portfolio diversification and a drastic shift among the companies from debt to equity finance are few reasons that led to the growth of financial integration. It is also seen that financial integration can be linked with various benefits like development of markets, institutions, strategies to create the provisions for savings and economic progress.

Lesson from the past

But these linkages can also turn out to be disadvantageous as it can create various risks like contagion and disruptions of economic activities. The year of 2008 is best suitable example to support this statement when national stock markets declined abruptly due to the development of credit markets in the United States. It has been researched by many economists that it is mandatory to monitor the progress of interdependence among the financial markets due to the economy policy.

How does it works?

The system of financial integration works on the framework of legal agreements, institutions, formal and informal economic factors which propagate the flow of international financial capital for the purpose of initiating trade-finance and investment. In past there have been rigorous efforts to uplift the international monetary system which improved the exchange rate stability and fostered the growth in global finance.

Advantages and benefits

The allocation of capital, better governance, higher investment, growth and risk sharing are major benefits of financial integration. Financial integration helps in strengthening the domestic financial sector which accounts for more efficient capital, greater investment and growth opportunities. It is also observed that financial gains can also be created among domestic financial firms because they have to compete directly with global firms and it is the reason which has led to better corporate governance.

Many well-known economists around the world believed that a nation should focus on getting broader capital base which can fuel the economic growth. Thus it is the reason that financial integration facilitates the flows of capital from developed economies to developing economies.

How did it changed the nation’s economy?

The big thing about the amalgamation of financial stock markets is that it has given boost to macroeconomic policies, health policies, enhanced bank regulations and strengthened the legal property rights in almost every nation. It has enabled an organised order of propagating foreign direct investment, liberalization of domestic equity capital. The effect of strong financial integration has also lead to the high capital outflows and short term capital mobility. It has given a strong base for the country like India to develop reliable currency from the outlook of domestic and international investors so that they could witness the benefits of greater liquidity, greater savings and accelerated economic growth. It is said that a country which holds unrestrained access to foreign capital markets without establishing a valuable currency can become vulnerable to hypothetical capital flights and can suffer serious economic costs.

How to analyse a stock?

The analysis performed for evaluating a particular trading instrument including investment sector and an entire market sector is known as stock analysis. The analysis executed by stock analyst is usually done to determine the future activity of an instrument, sector or market. The method which is adopted by investors and traders to make buying and selling decisions is called stock analysis. Investors can make an attempt to gain benefits from the financial markets by evaluating the past and current data of shares.

Stock analysis consist of fundamental analysis and technical analysis.

Fundamental Analysis

It is a type of analysis whose main focus is on the data originated from the sources like financial records, economic reports, company assets and market shares. For conducting important analysis of a company, investors do need to analyse the financial statements of a company like balance sheet, income sheet and cash flow statement. These types of statements are produced to the public in form of 10-Q or 10-k. Moreover, investors are also granted with a right to analyse the revenues, expenses and profits of a company by analysing their annual earnings reports.

Working of fundamental analysis

In financial analysis, an analyst generally measures the company’s profitability, liquidity, solvency, growth trajectory and leverage. Financial analysis consist of different ratios which determine the health of a company. The company’s ability in paying short-term liabilities is determined by comparing the current ratio with quick ratio. Current ratio is always calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities. If the analysis of a stock analyst yields that the current ratio of a company is less than one, then it indicates that a company’s financial health is very poor. It also showcases that the short-term obligations may not be covered and can become due.

The comparison of financial statement with its current financial statement is one main work executed by stock analyst. The main purpose for performing this action is that it informs an investor about the company’s growth and stability and thereby keeps him at a safer side in the business. This analysis also deals with the comparison of operating profit margin of two competing companies and rigorous analysis of their income statements. Operating profit margin is known as the amount of revenue which gets left after operating expenses get paid and is considered as the proportion of revenue that gets left to cover non-operating costs. For calculating operating, analyst divides operating income by revenue.

Technical Analysis

Technical analysis is the second method of stock-analysis and it mainly focuses on the study of past market action to forecast future price movement. The significant role of technical analyst is to analyse the price and volume, demand and supply and other aspects of financial markets. For understanding the graphical illustration of stocks’ trend, technical analysts use charts as a key tool for analysing the financial market.

For an assumption, a technical analyst may mark some specific areas like support and resistance level by using the help of a chart. In business charts, support levels are always market below the current trading price and it also showcases the resistance markers which are placed at previous highs above the market price of the stock. A stock analyst can easily determine the bullish outlook if the break is above the resistance level in business chart. And he can also understand the bearish trend, if the break falls below thee support level in a business chart.

When price trend analysis gets analysed by the supply and demand forces, only then technical stock analysis is known to be effective. The technical stock analysis may not turn out to be successful when it gets impact from the external factors get involved in determining the price movement and in analysing stocks. External factors that can easily affect the technical analysis include stock splits, mergers, dividend announcements, death of a CEO, accounting scandals, change of management, monetary policy changes etc.

Stock analyst do not face any problems in accessing the fundamental and technical analysis because they can be analysed independently. Some of the analyst refer both of these methods to find accurate results. From stock analysis to vet stock sectors, these types of methods are used by every analyst. Thus it can be concluded that financial market is known as the most significant method in creating the best investment strategy for portfolio.

Change in investment during different ages

As of now, investment has become the most important decision for everyone in life. Whether someone is in his 20’s or 50’s, the necessity of having investment plans is as important like having a house for getting protective shelter. Every individual has his own aspirations and for fulfilling them he thinks of getting an appropriate investment so that in future he/she does not need to rely on anyone. It is believed by many financial analyst that those set of people who are young and dynamic are ready to take higher risk and can also contribute by investing in mutual funds. Whereas those set of people who are older take the advantage of their salaries to live rest of their lives peacefully.

Begin Investment Planning in 20s

For those set of people who are in their early 20’s or have graduated from college need to think of investing atleast few amount of money in mutual funds by SIP. This is due to the fact that greater the amount of returns they will get in future, the brighter will be their future. The biggest advantage to the youth will be that they can take the benefits of compound interest by just investing in those mutual funds which promise them of high growth. Moreover, these set of people who are involved in share markets and are known for investing in aggressive stocks should think of investing in the mutual fund markets.

Career-Focused in 30s

The age group of 30s is especially for those type of people who focus mainly on their careers and think of how they can spend another (30-40 years) of life. This age might be the time for many people to achieve the heights of success. But if they think of investing in any mutual funds then it might prove to be the best way because by following this way they might climb the ladder of success.

Retirement-Minded in 40’s

After the age of 40, many people think of their retirement plans and start procrastinating about the future plans. It is a perfect time for the people in their 40’s to get serious about their future. Even if the person is at the mid-point of his career and wants to reach the peak point in his career then also he can invest any kind of mutual funds that suits his buying capacity.

After retirement 50’s and 60’s

For those set of people who are getting retired or have reached in their early 50’s then there is a chance left for them to rethink of investment and perhaps losing the hope is also not a problem. At this age people need to be more conservative about their investments and savings

By switching the investments to more stable markets and in low-earning bonds like funds it can turn out to be a good choice for the shareholders in case they don’t wish to risk all of their savings. Thus it is advisable to every shareholder to get good advice so that his money can get secured.

Shorting Stocks

In the terms of finance, shorting stocks means that the sale of asset which includes securities and other financial instruments which is not owned by the seller. It consist of seller effects like the sale of borrowing the asset so that it can be transferred to the buyer. Therefore, share position remains covered at the time of its purchase by seller so that he could deliver the purchased asset to the required lender. Even the short seller can gain profit by the decline in the prices of the goods because the cost of repurchase will be estimated to be less than the proceeds received upon the initial (short) sale. It can also result in loss when the price of a shorted inflates before the repurchase.

As per the financial analyst there is no theoretical limit put on the rise in the price of an instrument. It is also observed that short sellers also support margin or collateral to cover up the losses. Moreover their inability in doing this in a timely manner also causes broker or counterparty to liquidate the position. From the outlook of financial analysts, sellers generally borrow the securities in the span of short time so that it can give push to their sales. It is observed that in some cases, the short seller must also pay fees to purchase securities and can repay the lender for some cash returns so that the lenders could receive those set of securities which are not loaned out.

This type of process is usually done with financial instruments which can be traded in public securities, futures or currency markets. The main reason is due to the liquidity and real-time price distribution feature of such financial markets and the instruments which are defined within the each class.

In other terms “going short” is also considered as the opposite of the conservative practice of “going long”. Therefore investors earn profit from the increase in the price of asset.

From the reports of newspapers it can always be noticed that the public company whose shares are traded on stock-exchange usually consist of tens, hundreds of millions of outstanding shares which are owned by several stakeholders. It also consist of individual investors, employees, institutional investors, employees, managers and executives. Thus the common thing which all of these shareholders have is an interest in attaining the substantial success of the company. Most importantly, financial analyst also believe that the share-price of company should appreciate with time and should create wealth for all the shareholders.

A public company whose shares are traded on a stock exchange generally has tens or hundreds of millions of outstanding shares that are owned by its various stakeholders – individual investors, institutional investors, employees, managers and executives. All these stakeholders have a common interest – the sustained success of the company, which should result in its share price appreciating over time and creating wealth for all its shareholders. Thus it can be concluded that the shareholders who choose the form of short selling can also be benefitted.

Brokers are known as those set of business people who arrange dealings between a buyer and seller and take the charge for commission when the deals gets executed. The role of a broker can be of a seller or buyer whenever he becomes a principal party to the deal. Unlike the role of agent who acts on behalf of the principal party, the role of broker is quite different. Small trader is yet another name given to these brokers.

Generally, the services of a broker is not limited to only an independent party but can also be used widely in different industries. The foremost responsibility of a broker is to bring sellers and buyer together because he works as the facilitator between a buyer and seller. The best example to present the work of a broker will be in the real-estate market in which his main task is to sell a property.

Brokers also provide the market information relating to prices, products and market conditions. They can work either as seller or buyer but cannot enact both of these roles. An example to support this statement will be that of a stock-broker who is known for making the sale or purchase of securities on behalf of a client. From selling of stocks, bonds and other financial service, the role of a broker is quite huge and is not limited.

Even if someone wants to sell his financial securities then taking the help of a broker can be proved to be of a greater help. The first reason behind choosing a broker is that he knows the real value of a financial asset in the markets and are known for creating strong relations with perspective customers. Very often, people chose them because they are equipped with tools and resources to create a base of buyers. Then these brokers analyse the certain amount of buyers who can support the possible acquisition. Moreover an individual producer, especially when he is new to the market cannot create the market base or fetch customers more easily as a broker does. The other fact which signifies the importance of brokers is that they charge less commission in smaller markets.

It is advisable to the shareholders to look after the necessary documents relating to the brokers profile before they hire any because only then they might get sure about promoting their business to the different set of people. Some of the brokers are specialised in different fields like real estate brokers, aircraft brokers and they do not require no formal license or training requirement.

The services offered by full service brokers include market research, investment advice, retirement planning and provide the customers with wide range of investment products. Brokerage firms usually compensate the brokers on the basis of their trading volume and on the sale of investment products. Although many number of brokers offer fee-based investment products like managed investment accounts.

Those days have gone when only the wealthy could afford a broker and get the access to stock market. The all new era of internet generated a possibility of getting discount brokers who can access the stock market. Thus through the help of brokers investors can easily trade at a lower cost.

How to choose the best one?

A person who enacts the role of a facilitator between buyer and a seller is known as broker. The services offered by full broker includes market research, investment advice and retirement planning. Those set of investors who have high trading businesses can be expected to pay higher commissions for their trades. Many brokerage firms offer compensation to brokers on their services including the sale of investment accounts. Fee-based investment products like management investment accounts are also offered by brokers.

Brokers Regulatory Body

The Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) is a self-regulatory body which determines the working of brokers. Brokers work according to the suitable rules which specify them to give reasonable recommendation of a product to the buyer. Moreover investors are advised to choose those set of brokers who can understand the customers and value them. The broker who is able to put reasonable effort in getting the information about customer’s financial status, tax status, investment objectives and other relevant information. The standard of conducted executed by brokers differs largely from the financial advisors.

Real-estate brokers

The main aim of real-estate brokers is to sell a property by determining its market value, listing and comprehend different ways of promoting the property to prospective buyers. Real-estate brokers are also liable for gaining the information related to sales consideration.

The role of broker in real-estate field is quite much larger as he need to specify the specific area of land that lies in the capacity of a buyer. In addition to it, a broker is also liable for making an initial offer, purchase agreement for buyer and tries his best to negotiate the deal at reasonable rates with the buyer.

What is a Discount Broker?

If a buyer wishes to purchase any financial asset at a discount rate then he should get in touch with the discount broker. The main service of discount broker is to “buy” and “sell” financial products at a reduced charges in comparison to the services of full service border. Moreover discount broker do not provide any investment advice.

How to get the right type of broker?

If someone is a novice investor then for him selecting a broker will be the chief investment decision. Moreover, the sellers should also see whether the broker has handled the transaction cases in past because an experienced broker will be of great help in making their assets sell to the buyers. The second reason to hire an experienced broker is that they know all the rules of real-estate property management. In the times of today, there is not only one type of broker. Brokers like mortgage brokers, option broker, stock broker, investment broker, joint venture broker, customs breaker, customs broker, sponsorship broker and many more. By taking the help of a broker, people have become more confident while dealing in the share markets. However, there are certain amount of risks associated with selling of shares but with the help of broker many shareholders have been able to get assurance.

Margins and leverages

In the terms of finance, margin is defined as the security that the holder needs to deposit with a counterparty which includes their brokers. In case, if shareholder borrows some cash from the counterparty for buying financial instruments or have borrowed financial instruments for selling them at short time period then there are the certainties of rising risks. Lastly, the chances of risk may also arise if the shareholder has entered into derivative contract.

Share traders generally maintain margin account with the help of broker so that it can help them in share trading. The marginal loans are determined by the broker on basis of securities owned by the trader. It is usually a right of broker to modify the percentage of the security value so that it further gives advances to the trader. The broker can also make a margin call if the available balance declines below the actual utilised amount. In case where the cash balance of margin account turns out to be negative then the amount gets owned by the broker. The account holder is able to reinvest into the shares if cash balance comes out to be positive or he can also with draw the certain amount of money and can earn interest.

The enhancement of buying power which is available to margin account holders is called leverage. The most powerful thing about leverage is that it allows a shareholder to pay less than full price for the trade. Moreover it gives them the ability to go in larger positions as compared to other funds. Leverage is always expressed in the terms of ratio such as (2:1).

Financial leverage is referred as a technique which is involved in borrowing the funds for purchasing an asset. Generally the finance provider sets a limit on how much risk can be taken by a shareholder. The finance providers also set a limit on how much leverage it can permit and they demand for the acquired asset to be provided as collateral security.

There are many reasons that support the rise of leverage in many cases. For an assumption, when a person leverages his savings for buying a home by financing a portion of the purchase price with mortgage debt. Secondly in case, when individuals leverage their exposure to financial investments by borrowing from their broker. Sometimes equity owners of large size businesses leverage their investment by borrowing the few proportion for financing their needs. Many business leverage their businesses by utilising fixed cost inputs at times when revenues are expected to be variable. It is said by many financial analyst that an increase in revenue result in a large increase in operating income. Those set of shareholders who hold hedge funds may leverage their assets by financing a specific share of the portfolio with the cash proceeds from the undersized sale of other positions.

Risks associated with leverage

Leverage is considered for enlarging profits when the returns yielded from the assets exceeds the cost of borrowing. But sometimes leverage can also magnify losses. When a corporation buys too much money then it might face bankruptcy or default at the time of his business going downwards. For an example, if an investor buys a stock on the margin of (50%), may lose (40%) if the stock falls by (20%).